Faculty Profile

Marijke Breuning

Title
Professor
Department
Political Science
College
College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences

    

Education

PhD, The Ohio State University, 1992.
Major: Department of Political Science
MA, The Ohio State University, 1983.
Major: School of Journalism
BA, The Ohio State University, 1982.
Major: Department of Political Science
Diploma (International), School voor de Journalistiek, Utrecht, Netherlands, 1980.
Major: Journalism

Current Scheduled Teaching*

PSCI 3810.002, International Relations, Spring 2023
PSCI 4800.001, The Politics of International Organization, Spring 2023
PSCI 5810.001, Proseminar in International Relations, Fall 2022 Syllabus
PSCI 4826.001, Women, War and Peace, Fall 2022 Syllabus

* Texas Education Code 51.974 (HB 2504) requires each institution of higher education to make available to the public, a syllabus for undergraduate lecture courses offered for credit by the institution.

Previous Scheduled Teaching*

PSCI 6900.727, Special Problems, Summer 8W2 2022
PSCI 6840.001, Foreign Policy Analysis, Spring 2022 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 2306.003, US and Texas Constitutions and Institutions, Spring 2022 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 3810.001, International Relations, Fall 2021 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 5810.001, Proseminar in International Relations, Fall 2021 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 4820.002, Contemporary International Problems, Spring 2021 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 3810.002, International Relations, Spring 2021 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 5810.001, Proseminar in International Relations, Fall 2020 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 6900.705, Special Problems, Fall 2020
PSCI 4700.001, Topics in Comparative Politics, Fall 2020 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 4700.002, Topics in Comparative Politics, Fall 2020 SPOT
PSCI 4820.002, Contemporary International Problems, Spring 2020 Syllabus
PSCI 6840.001, Foreign Policy Analysis, Spring 2020 Syllabus
PSCI 3810.002, International Relations, Fall 2019 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 2306.008, US and Texas Constitutions and Institutions, Fall 2019 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 4820.001, Contemporary International Problems, Spring 2019 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 3810.002, International Relations, Spring 2019 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 6900.706, Special Problems, Spring 2019
PSCI 3810.002, International Relations, Fall 2018 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 6900.705, Special Problems, Fall 2018
PSCI 4700.004, Topics in Comparative Politics, Fall 2018 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 5840.001, Foreign Policy Analysis, Spring 2018 SPOT
PSCI 2306.009, US and Texas Constitutions and Institutions, Spring 2018 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 6930.705, Individual Research, Spring 2017
PSCI 3810.001, International Relations, Spring 2017 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 4800.001, The Politics of International Organization, Spring 2017 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 5850.001, Human Rights, Fall 2016 SPOT
PSCI 3810.001, International Relations, Fall 2016 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 6900.705, Special Problems, Fall 2016
PSCI 5840.001, Foreign Policy Analysis, Spring 2016 SPOT
PSCI 6900.705, Special Problems, Fall 2015
PSCI 4700.001, Topics in Comparative Politics, Fall 2015 Syllabus SPOT
PSCI 6930.705, Individual Research, Spring 2015
PSCI 3810.002, International Relations, Spring 2015 Syllabus
PSCI 4700.001, Topics in Comparative Politics, Fall 2014 Syllabus
PSCI 5840.001, Foreign Policy Analysis, Spring 2014
PSCI 6930.705, Individual Research, Fall 2013
PSCI 4700.001, Topics in Comparative Politics, Fall 2013 Syllabus
PSCI 3810.001, International Relations, Spring 2013 Syllabus
PSCI 6940.705, Practicum, Spring 2013
PSCI 3810.001, International Relations, Fall 2012 Syllabus
PSCI 6900.705, Special Problems, Fall 2012
PSCI 6930.705, Individual Research, Spring 2012
PSCI 3810.001, International Relations, Spring 2012 Syllabus
PSCI 6930.705, Individual Research, Fall 2011
PSCI 3810.001, International Relations, Fall 2011 Syllabus
PSCI 5820.001, Seminar in International Relations, Fall 2011
PSCI 4820.002, Contemporary International Problems, Spring 2011 Syllabus
PSCI 6930.705, Individual Research, Spring 2011
PSCI 3810.001, International Relations, Spring 2011 Syllabus
PSCI 6940.705, Practicum, Spring 2011
PSCI 3810.001, International Relations, Fall 2010 Syllabus
PSCI 6940.705, Practicum, Fall 2010
PSCI 4900.705, Special Problems, Fall 2010
PSCI 4800.001, The Politics of International Organization, Fall 2010 Syllabus
PSCI 6930.723, Individual Research, Summer 5W2 2010
PSCI 6900.724, Special Problems, Summer 5W2 2010
PSCI 3810.002, International Relations, Spring 2010
PSCI 5820.001, Seminar in International Relations, Spring 2010
PSCI 4900.707, Special Problems, Spring 2010
PSCI 4820.002, Contemporary International Problems, Fall 2009
PSCI 3810.001, International Relations, Fall 2009
PSCI 6900.705, Special Problems, Fall 2009
PSCI 4820.002, Contemporary International Problems, Spring 2009
PSCI 3810.002, International Relations, Spring 2009
PSCI 3810.001, International Relations, Fall 2008

* Texas Education Code 51.974 (HB 2504) requires each institution of higher education to make available to the public, a syllabus for undergraduate lecture courses offered for credit by the institution.

Published Publications

Published Intellectual Contributions

Blog post
Breuning, M., Ishiyama, J. (2022). How Research on Role Conceptions Helps Understand Ukrainian Resistance. The Jordan Center Blog (formerly: All the Russias), NYU Jordan Center. https://jordanrussiacenter.org/news/cconfronting-russia-how-research-on-role-conceptions-helps-understand-ukrainian-resistance/#.Ykuk9jVOnb0
Book
Breuning, M., Ishiyama, J. T. (2021). How to Get Published in the Best Political Science and International Relations Journals: Understanding the Publishing Game. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Breuning, M. (2010). 21st Century Political Science: A Reference Handbook..
Breuning, M. (2007). Foreign Policy Analysis: A Comparative Introduction.
Breuning, M. (1998). Ethnopolitics in the New Europe.
Book Chapter
Breuning, M., Ishiyama, J. (2022). How to Publish in Academic Journals. Handbook of Research Methods and Applications in International Relations. Edward Elgar.
Breuning, M. (2019). Role Theory in Politics and International Relations. Oxford Handbook of Behavioral Political Science. Oxford University Press.
Breuning, M. (2017). Role Theory in Foreign Policy. Encyclopedia of Foreign Policy Analysis/Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics,.
Breuning, M. (2016). Contesting Belgium’s Role in Development Cooperation. Domestic Role Contestation, Foreign Policy, and International Relations.
Breuning, M. (2013). "Belgium: Citizenship and Identity in a Multi-Ethnic Society." In Identity, Citizenship and Welfare: National and International Perspectives, eds. Ireneusz Paweł Karolewski and Andrzej Marcin Suszycki..
Breuning, M. (2011). "Re-Constructing Development Assistance: Analogies, Ideas, and Norms at the Dawn of the New Millennium." In Psychology, Constructivism, and International Relations: An Ideational Alliance, ed. Vaughn Shannon and Paul Kowert..
Breuning, M. (2011). "Role Theory Research in International Relations." In Role Theory Research in International Relations: Conceptual Challenges and Political Promise, eds. Sebastian Harnisch, Cornelia Frank, and Hanns W. Maull..
Breuning, M. (2010). "Content Analysis." In 21st Century Political Science: A Reference Handbook, eds. John Ishiyama and Marijke Breuning..
Breuning, M. (2010). "Incorporating Women into International Studies: Working their Way In." In International Studies Encyclopedia (ISE), a component of the International Studies Compendium Project, ed. Robert A. Denemark.
Breuning, M. (2010). "Pedagogy and Foreign Policy Analysis." In International Studies Encyclopedia (ISE), a component of the International Studies Compendium Project, ed. Robert A. Denemark.
Breuning, M. (2010). "Women and Publishing in International Studies." In International Studies Encyclopedia (ISE), a component of the International Studies Compendium Project, ed. Robert A. Denemark.
Breuning, M. (2009). "United States Aid to the Developing World." In Processes and Policies in American and Texas Politics:  A Workbook for Political Science 1050, 8th ed, ed. Gloria C. Cox.
Breuning, M. (2007). "Flemish Ethnopolitical Parties in an Integrating Europe." In Nationalism in Contemporary Europe, eds. Ireneusz Pawel Karolewski and Andrzej Marcin Suszycki.
Breuning, M. (1998). "Configuring Issue Areas: Belgian and Dutch Representations of the Role of Foreign Assistance in Foreign Policy." In Problem Representation in Foreign Politicy Decision Making, eds. Donald A. Sylvan and James F. Voss.
Breuning, M. (1997). "Culture, History, Role: Belgian and Dutch Axioms and Foreign Assistance Policy." In Culture and Foreign Policy, ed. Valerie M. Hudson.
Book Review
Breuning, M. (2017). The Diffusion of Intercountry Adoption. International Studies Review. 19(3), 517-519.
Breuning, M. (2016). “The Importance of Leaders’ Experience and Attributes.”. Why Leaders Fight. New York, Cambridge University Press, in International Studies Review..
Breuning, M. (2013). "Why World Peace Depends on Gender Equality in the Family." A review of: Hudson, Valerie M., Bonnie Balliff-Spanvill, Mary Caprioli, and Chad F. Emmett. 2012. Sex and World Peace. New York: Columbia University Press. 19(3):311-312.
Breuning, M. (2009). "Thinking Critically About Security Studies." Review of: Debrix, François, and Mark J. Lacy, Eds. 2009. The Geopolitics of American Insecurity: Terror, Power, and Foreign Policy. London and New York: Routledge, in International Studies Review. 11(4):791-793..
Breuning, M. (2007). Review of: Lebow, Richard Ned, Wulf Kansteiner, and Claudio Fogu, Eds. 2006. The Politics of Memory in Postwar Europe. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Breuning, M. (2004). "Bringing 'Comparative' Back to Foreign Policy Analysis.".
Breuning, M. (2002). Foreign Aid, Development Assistance, or Development Cooperation: What's in a Name?.
Breuning, M. (2002). Review of: Vos, Mei Li. 2001. International Cooperation between Politics and Practice: How Dutch Cooperation changed Remarkably Little after a Diplomatic Rupture. Amsterdam: Universiteit van Amsterdam Academisch Proefschrift.
Breuning, M. (2001). Review of: Nielson, Jonathan, Ed. 2000. Paths Not Taken: Speculations on American Foreign Policy and Diplomatic History, Interests, Ideals, and Power. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Breuning, M. (1995). Review of: Skidmore, David, and Valerie M. Hudson, Eds. 1993. The Limits of State Autonomy: Societal Groups and Foreign Policy Formulation. Boulder: Westview Press.
Breuning, M. (1994). "Clouded Vision: The Complexities of Foreign Aid Motivation." Review of: Lumsdaine, David Halloran. 1993. Moral Vision in International Politics: The Foreign Aid Regime 1949-1989. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Breuning, M. (1993). Review of: Khong, Yuen Foong. 1992. Analogies at War: Korea, Munich, Dien Bien Phu, and the Vietnam Decisions of 1965. Princeton: Princeton University Press, and Anderson, David L., Ed. 1993. Shadow on the White House: Presidents and the Vietnam War, 1945-1975. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.
Commissioned report
Breuning, M., De Bièvre, D., Van Den Anker, C., Schröder, E. (2018). Political Science Education in the Netherlands: Reflections on the State of the Art. Utrecht: QANU. www.qanu.nl
Journal Article
Ramos, J., Scalera Elliott, J., Fattore, C., Breuning, M. (2021). Anxiety and the Onset of COVID-19: Examining Concerns of Historically Excluded Scholars. International Studies Perspectives.
Breuning, M., Ishiyama, J. T. (2021). "Confronting Russia: How Do the Citizens of Countries of the Former Soviet Union Perceive Their States' Role?" (first listing). Communist and Post-Communist Studies. 54(3), 97-118.
Dessie, M., Breuning, M. (2021). Building Civil Society? An Assessment of the new Ethiopian Civil Society Law and Its Promise for Promoting Democracy.. Journal of Asian and African Studies. Special issue “Ethiopia in Transition.”. 10.1177/00219096211015321.
Breuning, M., Okundaye, G. (2021). Half of the Cabinet: Explaining Ethiopia’s Move to Gender Parity in the Government.. Journal of Asian and African Studies.
Breuning, M. (2021). Teaching Research and Researching Teaching: The Impactful Career of John Ishiyama.. Political Science Today. (1(3)), 18-24.
Okundaye, G., Breuning, M. (2021). Is the Expansion of Women’s Access to Political Leadership Rewarded? Evidence from the Allocation of US Foreign Aid. Journal of Women, Politics & Policy.
Crawford, K., Windsor, L., Breuning, M. (2021). Not a Leaky Pipeline! Academic Success is a Game of Chutes and Ladders.. PS: Political Science & Politics. 54(3), 509-512.
Breuning, M., Fattore, C., Ramos, J., Scalera, J. (2021). The Great Equalizer? Gender, Parenting, and Scholarly Productivity during the Global Pandemic.. PS: Political Science & Politics. 54(3), 427-431.
Breuning, M., Xi, J. (2021). The Consequences of Accession: The Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption's Impact on Children's Rights. Journal of International Relations and Development. 24(1), 77-100.
Breuning, M., Pechenina, A. (2021). Role Dissonance in Foreign Policy: Russia, Power, and Intercountry Adoption.. Foreign Policy Analysis. 16(1), 21-40.
Breuning, M. (2020). Going Dutch? Lessons from the Outcome-Based Political Science Curriculum in the Netherlands. PS: Political Science & Politics. 53(3), 510-514.
Breuning, M., Gross, B. I., Feinberg, A., Martinez, M., Sharma, R., Ishiyama, J. T. (2018). Clearing the Pipeline? Gender and the Review Process at the APSR.. PS: Political Science & Politics. 51(3), 629-634.
Breuning, M., Martinez, M. (2018). Difficult Commitments: Intercountry Adoption to the US and Accession to the Hague Convention. Other. 21(4), 247-269.
Breuning, M., Feinberg, A., Gross, B., Martinez, M., Sharma, R., Ishiyama, J. T. (2018). How International is Political Science? Patterns of Submission and Publication in the APSR.. PS: Political Science & Politics. 51(4), 789-798.
Ishiyama, J. T., Breuning, M. (2017). Organizing to Rule: Structure, Agent, and Explaining Presidential Management Styles in Africa (third listing). Democratization. 25(3), 524-544.
Breuning, M., Blanton, R. G. (2016). "What Makes International Studies Programs Successful? A Survey-Based Assessment.". International Studies Perspectives.
Breuning, M., Backstrom, J., Brannon, J., Gross, B. I., Widmeier, M. (2015). Reviewer Fatigue? Why Scholars Decline to Review their Peers' Work.. Political Science and Politics. 48(4), 595-600. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9995005&fulltextType=NW&fileId=S1049096515000827
Breuning, M. (2014). “Gender and Generosity: Does Women’s Representation Affect Development Cooperation?”. Politics, Groups and Identities.
Breuning, M. (2013). " Samaritans, Family Builders, and the Politics of Intercountry Adoption." 14(4):417-435..
Breuning, M. (2013). " Women and Pre-Tenure Scholarly Productivity in International Studies: An Investigation into the Leaky Career Pipeline." 14(4):507-527..
Breuning, M. (2013). "Roles and Realities: When and Why Gatekeepers Fail to Change Foreign Policy.". Foreign Policy Analysis.
Breuning, M. (2013). "What Explains Openness to Intercountry Adoption?" 94(1):113-130.
Breuning, M. (2012). "Educational Access and Peace Duration in Post Conflict Countries." 38(1):58-78.
Breuning, M. (2011). "Orphans and Political Instability." 92(4):1002-1020..
Breuning, M. (2011). "The International Studies Minor in Practice: Program Offerings and Student Choices." 7(2): 1 73-195..
Breuning, M. (2011). "What's in a Name? Ethnic Party Identity and Democratic Development in Post Communist Politics." 17(2):223-241.
Breuning, M. (2010). "Participation by Women in Annual ISA Meetings, 2005-2009." International Studies Perspectives. 11(3): 242-253..
Breuning, M. (2009). Foreign Aid and Democratization in Post-Conflict Societies.
Breuning, M. (2009). The Politics of Intercountry Adoption: Explaining Variation in the Legal Requirements of Sub-Saharan African Countries.
Breuning, M. (2008). Assessing Assessment: Examining the Assessment Plans at Seventy Political Science Departments.
Breuning, M. (2007). Foreign Aid, Democracy, and Political Stability in Post Conflict Societies.
Breuning, M. (2007). Gender and Journal Authorship in Eight Prestigious Political Science Journals.
Breuning, M. (2007). Marketing the International Studies Major: Claims and Content of Programs at Primarily Undergraduate Institutions in the Midwest.
Breuning, M. (2007). Undergraduate International Students: A Resource for the Intercultural Education of American Peers?.
Breuning, M. (2007). Women's Participation in Annual Meetings: Comparative Perspective from ISA.
Breuning, M. (2006). A Century of Continuity and (Little) Change in the Structure of the Undergraduate Political Science Curriculum.
Breuning, M. (2006). How 'International' Are Undergraduate Political Science Programs at Liberal Arts and Sciences Colleges and Universities in the Midwest?.
Breuning, M. (2005). Promise and Performance: An Evaluation of Journals in International Relations.
Breuning, M. (2005). The International Relations of APSA.
Breuning, M. (2004). A Survey of International Studies Programs at Liberal Arts Colleges and Universities in the Midwest: Characteristics and Correlates.
Breuning, M. (2004). International Studies Programs: For What Purpose and for Whom?.
Breuning, M. (2003). Does Participation in Undergraduate Research Affect Political Science Students?.
Breuning, M. (2003). Donor Characteristics and the Dispersion of Foreign Assistance.
Breuning, M. (2003). The Role of Analogies and Abstract Reasoning in Decision Making: Evidence from the Debate over Truman's Proposal for Development Assistance.
Breuning, M. (2001). The Last Laugh: Skill Building through a Liberal Arts Political Science Curriculum.
Breuning, M. (2001). Women's Representation and Development Assistance: A Cross-National Study.
Breuning, M. (2000). Understanding Diversity in African-American Political Thought: Comparing Du Bois, Washington, Garvey, and Elijah Muhammad.
Breuning, M. (1999). Aiding the (Former) Enemy: Testing Explanations for Foreign Assistance to Eastern Europe and the FSU Republics.
Breuning, M. (1999). Ethnopolitical Parties and Development Cooperation: the Case of Belgium.
Breuning, M. (1998). The Rhetoric of Nationalism: Rhetorical Strategies of the Volksunie and Vlaams Blok in Belgium, 1991-1995.
Breuning, M. (1997). Foreign Policy in America's Backyard: Dutch and American Responses to the 8-December Murders in Suriname.
Breuning, M. (1997). Nationalism and Nationalist Parties: A Comparison of the Flemish Volksunie and Vlaams Blok.
Breuning, M. (1997). Opportunities, Constraints and Ethnopolitical Party Behavior: The Cases of Bulgaria and Slovakia, 1991-96.
Breuning, M. (1996). The Dialogue Between International Relations and Comparative Politics: A Response to Zahariadis.
Breuning, M. (1995). Words and Deeds: Foreign Assistance Rhetoric and Policy Behavior in the Netherlands, Belgium, and the United Kingdom.
Breuning, M. (1994). Belgium's Foreign Assistance: Decision Maker Rhetoric and Policy Behavior.
Breuning, M. (1994). Rationalization and Derivation Processes in Survey Studies of Political Candidate Evaluation.
Breuning, M. (1994). Twisting Arms and Holding Hands: M.A. Students and Conference Participation.
Breuning, M. (1994). Why Give Foreign Aid? Decision Maker Perceptions of the Benefits to the Donor State.
Magazine/Trade Publication
Fattore, C., Ramos, J. M., Scalera, J. E., Breuning, M. (2020). Pandemics, Parenting, and Productivity: Academic Life in the Time of COVID-19.. International Affairs blog. https://medium.com/international-affairs-blog/pandemics-parenting-and-productivity-academic-life-in-the-time-of-covid-19-a69ef53dd23b
Breuning, M. (2016). “Overburdened Reviewers and the Future of Peer Review.”. European Science Editing.
Breuning, M. (2009). Demographics and the ISA.
Breuning, M. (2009). Dimensions of Diversity in the ISA's Executive Committee and Governing Council, 2005-09.
Breuning, M. (2008). What Course Syllabi Tell Us About How We Teach FPA.
Breuning, M. (1994). Consuming and Producing: M.A. Students, Conferences, and Active Learning.
Newsletter
Breuning, M., Ishiyama, J. T. (2017). Rebels-Turned-President and Cabinet Stability. http://presidential-power.com/
Breuning, M., Ishiyama, J. T. (2016). “Implementing DA-RT Principles in the American Political Science Review”.
Breuning, M. (2016). “Implementing DART Principles in the American Political Science Review.”. Comparative Politics Newsletter.
Popular Press Article
Breuning, M. (2013). " Following the Unpaved Road to a New Research Agenda." https://research.unt.edu/research-profiles/following-unpaved-road-new-research-agenda published online, July 29, 2013 Related Links: https://research.unt.edu/research-profiles/following-unpaved-road-new-research-agenda.
Breuning, M. (2013). "Editors and the Gender Gap." Part of the Gender Gap Symposium. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2013/10/03/editors-and-the-gender-gap/ Published online, October 3, 2013 Related Links: http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/monkey-cage/wp/2013/10/03/editors-and-the-gender-gap/.
Breuning, M. (2012). "Editorial Statement." 106(1):iii-iv.
Scholarly Preface
Breuning, M., Ishiyama, J. T. (2021). Introduction to the Special Issue: Ethiopia in Transition. Journal of Asian and African Studies. 56(5), 985-987.
Ishiyama, J. T., Breuning, M., Thies, C., Van Vechten, R., Wallace, S. (2021). Rethinking the Undergraduate Political Science Major: An Introduction to the Symposium. PS: Political Science & Politics.
Breuning, M. (2019). Foreword. The Role of the High Courts of the United States of America, South Africa, and the European Union in Foreign Affairs. The Hague: TMC Asser Press/Springer.
Textbook
Breuning, M. (1998). Instructor's Manual and Test Bank to Accompany Conway Henderson's International Relations: Conflict and Cooperation at the Turn of the 21st Century.

Awarded Grants

Contracts, Grants and Sponsored Research

Contract
Breuning, M. (Co-Principal), "Editorship of the American Political Science Review," Sponsored by American Political Science Association, Private, $1086178 Funded. (20122016).
Fellowship
Breuning, M. (Principal), "Visiting Senior Research Fellowship -- CANCELLED," Sponsored by Asia Research Institute @ National University of Singapore, International, $5000 Funded. (July 9, 2020July 27, 2020).
Grant - Research
Breuning, M. (Principal), "Research Enabling Grant (REG).," University of North Texas, $10000 Funded. (20122013).
Grant - Service
Ishiyama, J. T., Breuning, M. (Co-Principal), "“Rethinking the Undergraduate Political Science Major: A Conference Proposal,”," Sponsored by American Political Science Association, Other, $25000 Funded. (June 2018August 2019).
,
Overall
Summative Rating
Challenge and
Engagement Index
Response Rate

out of 5

out of 7
%
of
students responded
  • Overall Summative Rating (median):
    This rating represents the combined responses of students to the four global summative items and is presented to provide an overall index of the class’s quality. Overall summative statements include the following (response options include a Likert scale ranging from 5 = Excellent, 3 = Good, and 1= Very poor):
    • The course as a whole was
    • The course content was
    • The instructor’s contribution to the course was
    • The instructor’s effectiveness in teaching the subject matter was
  • Challenge and Engagement Index:
    This rating combines student responses to several SPOT items relating to how academically challenging students found the course to be and how engaged they were. Challenge and Engagement Index items include the following (response options include a Likert scale ranging from 7 = Much higher, 4 = Average, and 1 = Much lower):
    • Do you expect your grade in this course to be
    • The intellectual challenge presented was
    • The amount of effort you put into this course was
    • The amount of effort to succeed in this course was
    • Your involvement in course (doing assignments, attending classes, etc.) was
CLOSE