Faculty Profile

Brian Richardson

Title
Professor
Department
Communication Studies
College
College of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences

    

Education

PhD, University of Texas at Austin, 2001.
Major: Communication Studies
Dissertation Title: Talk about organizational wrongdoing : An investigation of dimensions and predictors
MA, Louisiana Tech University, 1992.
Major: Human Relations & Supervision
BS, Lamar University, 1991.
Major: Communication

Current Scheduled Teaching*

COMM 4120.001, Communication and Sport, Spring 2023
COMM 4220.001, Theories of Crisis Communication, Spring 2023
COMM 3320.001, Communication and Conflict Management, Fall 2022 Syllabus
COMM 4800.701, Communication Internship, Fall 2022
COMM 5481.711, Graduate Internship, Fall 2022
COMM 5220.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2022

* Texas Education Code 51.974 (HB 2504) requires each institution of higher education to make available to the public, a syllabus for undergraduate lecture courses offered for credit by the institution.

Previous Scheduled Teaching*

COMM 3320.001, Communication and Conflict Management, Summer 5W1 2022 Syllabus SPOT
COMM 4120.001, Communication and Sport, Spring 2022 Syllabus SPOT
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Spring 2022
COMM 4220.001, Theories of Crisis Communication, Spring 2022 Syllabus SPOT
COMM 3320.001, Communication and Conflict Management, Fall 2021 Syllabus SPOT
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Fall 2021
COMM 5221.001, Crisis and Disaster Communication, Fall 2021 SPOT
COMM 5910.700, Special Problems, Fall 2021
COMM 3320.001, Communication and Conflict Management, Fall 2020 Syllabus SPOT
COMM 5625.001, Communication Consulting, Fall 2020 SPOT
COMM 4220.001, Theories of Crisis Communication, Fall 2020 Syllabus SPOT
COMM 4120.001, Communication and Sport, Spring 2020 Syllabus
COMM 5481.707, Graduate Internship, Spring 2020
COMM 5220.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2019 SPOT
COMM 5930.700, Research Problems in Lieu of a Thesis, Summer 5W1 2019
COMM 4120.001, Communication and Sport, Spring 2019 Syllabus SPOT
COMM 5481.707, Graduate Internship, Spring 2019
COMM 5221.001, Crisis and Disaster Communication, Fall 2018 SPOT
COMM 5481.707, Graduate Internship, Fall 2018
COMM 5481.700, Graduate Internship, Summer 5W2 2018
EADP 4040.001, International Disasters, Summer 5W1 2018 Syllabus SPOT
COMM 5820.001, Seminar in Communication Processes, Summer 5W1 2018 SPOT
EMDS 5800.001, Seminar in Emergency Management and Disaster Science, Summer 5W1 2018 SPOT
COMM 4829.001, Topics in Interpersonal/Organizational Studies, Summer 5W1 2018 Syllabus SPOT
COMM 4120.001, Communication and Sport, Spring 2018 Syllabus SPOT
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Spring 2018
COMM 5900.707, Special Problems, Spring 2018
COMM 5625.001, Communication Consulting, Fall 2017 SPOT
COMM 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Fall 2017
COMM 4120.001, Communication and Sport, Spring 2017 Syllabus SPOT
COMM 5481.707, Graduate Internship, Fall 2016
COMM 5220.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2016 SPOT
COMM 5820.001, Seminar in Communication Processes, Summer 3W1 2016 SPOT
COMM 4900.700, Special Problems, Summer 3W1 2016
COMM 4829.001, Topics in Interpersonal/Organizational Studies, Summer 3W1 2016 Syllabus SPOT
COMM 5180.001, Qualitative Research Methods in Communication, Spring 2016 SPOT
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Fall 2015
COMM 5221.001, Crisis and Disaster Communication, Fall 2015 SPOT
COMM 5481.707, Graduate Internship, Fall 2015
COMM 5930.707, Research Problems in Lieu of a Thesis, Fall 2015
COMM 4800.001, Communication Internship, Summer 5W2 2015
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Summer 5W1 2015 SPOT
COMM 5625.001, Communication Consulting, Spring 2015
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Spring 2015
COMM 5481.707, Graduate Internship, Spring 2015
COMM 4829.002, Topics in Interpersonal/Organizational Studies, Spring 2015 Syllabus
COMM 3320.001, Communication and Conflict Management, Fall 2014 Syllabus
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Fall 2014
COMM 5481.707, Graduate Internship, Fall 2014
COMM 5220.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2014
COMM 4900.707, Special Problems, Fall 2014
COMM 4800.001, Communication Internship, Summer 5W2 2014
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Summer 5W1 2014
COMM 5820.001, Seminar in Communication Processes, Summer 3W1 2014
COMM 4829.001, Topics in Interpersonal/Organizational Studies, Summer 3W1 2014 Syllabus
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Spring 2014
COMM 5481.707, Graduate Internship, Spring 2014
COMM 5180.001, Qualitative Research Methods in Communication, Spring 2014
COMM 5930.707, Research Problems in Lieu of a Thesis, Spring 2014
COMM 4900.707, Special Problems, Spring 2014
COMM 4829.002, Topics in Interpersonal/Organizational Studies, Spring 2014 Syllabus
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Fall 2013
COMM 5221.001, Crisis and Disaster Communication, Fall 2013
COMM 3920.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2013 Syllabus
COMM 4800.001, Communication Internship, Summer 5W2 2013
COMM 3720.001, Small Group Communication, Summer 5W1 2013 Syllabus
COMM 5900.707, Special Problems, Summer 5W1 2013
COMM 5625.001, Communication Consulting, Spring 2013
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Spring 2013
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Spring 2013
COMM 4829.002, Topics in Interpersonal/Organizational Studies, Spring 2013 Syllabus
COMM 3320.001, Communication and Conflict Management, Fall 2012 Syllabus
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Fall 2012
COMM 4951.707, Honors College Capstone Thesis, Fall 2012
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Fall 2012
COMM 3920.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2012 Syllabus
COMM 3920.002, Organizational Communication, Fall 2012 Syllabus
COMM 4800.001, Communication Internship, Summer 5W2 2012
COMM 5900.707, Special Problems, Summer 5W2 2012
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Spring 2012
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Spring 2012
COMM 5180.001, Qualitative Research Methods in Communication, Spring 2012
COMM 3720.001, Small Group Communication, Spring 2012 Syllabus
COMM 3720.201, Small Group Communication, Spring 2012
COMM 3720.202, Small Group Communication, Spring 2012
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Fall 2011
COMM 5221.001, Crisis and Disaster Communication, Fall 2011
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Fall 2011
COMM 3920.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2011 Syllabus
COMM 3920.002, Organizational Communication, Fall 2011 Syllabus
COMM 5900.707, Special Problems, Fall 2011
COMM 4800.001, Communication Internship, Summer 5W2 2011
COMM 5625.001, Communication Consulting, Spring 2011
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Spring 2011
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Spring 2011
COMM 5930.707, Research Problems in Lieu of a Thesis, Spring 2011
COMM 3720.001, Small Group Communication, Spring 2011 Syllabus
COMM 3720.201, Small Group Communication, Spring 2011
COMM 3720.202, Small Group Communication, Spring 2011
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Fall 2010
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Fall 2010
COMM 3920.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2010 Syllabus
COMM 5220.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2010
COMM 4800.001, Communication Internship, Summer 5W2 2010
COMM 5900.707, Special Problems, Summer 5W1 2010
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Spring 2010
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Spring 2010
COMM 5180.001, Qualitative Research Methods in Communication, Spring 2010
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Fall 2009
COMM 5221.001, Crisis and Disaster Communication, Fall 2009
COMM 5481.707, Graduate Internship, Fall 2009
COMM 5080.001, Introduction to Graduate Study and Research in Communication Studies, Fall 2009
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Fall 2009
COMM 3920.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2009
COMM 4800.001, Communication Internship, Summer 5W2 2009
COMM 5625.001, Communication Consulting, Spring 2009
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Spring 2009
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Spring 2009
COMM 3720.001, Small Group Communication, Spring 2009
COMM 3720.201, Small Group Communication, Spring 2009
COMM 3720.202, Small Group Communication, Spring 2009
COMM 5910.707, Special Problems, Spring 2009
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Fall 2008
COMM 5080.001, Introduction to Graduate Study and Research in Communication Studies, Fall 2008
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Fall 2008
COMM 3920.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2008
COMM 5220.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2008
COMM 3320.001, Communication and Conflict Management, Summer 5W1 2008
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Spring 2008
COMM 5481.707, Graduate Internship, Spring 2008
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Spring 2008
COMM 5930.707, Research Problems in Lieu of a Thesis, Spring 2008
COMM 5880.001, Seminar in Communication Studies and Research, Spring 2008
COMM 3720.001, Small Group Communication, Spring 2008
COMM 3720.201, Small Group Communication, Spring 2008
COMM 3720.202, Small Group Communication, Spring 2008
COMM 4900.707, Special Problems, Spring 2008
COMM 3320.001, Communication and Conflict Management, Fall 2007
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Fall 2007
COMM 5080.001, Introduction to Graduate Study and Research in Communication Studies, Fall 2007
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Fall 2007
COMM 3920.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2007
COMM 5820.001, Seminar in Communication Processes, Fall 2007
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Summer 5W2 2007
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Summer 5W1 2007
COMM 3920.001, Organizational Communication, Summer 5W1 2007
COMM 5900.708, Special Problems, Summer 5W2 2007
COMM 5625.001, Communication Consulting, Spring 2007
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Spring 2007
COMM 5950.757, Master's Thesis, Spring 2007
COMM 5930.707, Research Problems in Lieu of a Thesis, Spring 2007
COMM 3720.001, Small Group Communication, Spring 2007
COMM 3720.201, Small Group Communication, Spring 2007
COMM 3720.202, Small Group Communication, Spring 2007
COMM 3320.001, Communication and Conflict Management, Fall 2006
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Fall 2006
COMM 5950.758, Master's Thesis, Fall 2006
COMM 3920.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2006
COMM 5220.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2006
COMM 5900.708, Special Problems, Fall 2006
COMM 5820.001, Seminar in Communication Processes, Summer 5W1 2006
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Spring 2006
COMM 5820.002, Seminar in Communication Processes, Spring 2006
COMM 3720.001, Small Group Communication, Spring 2006
COMM 3720.201, Small Group Communication, Spring 2006
COMM 4829.001, Topics in Communication Processes, Spring 2006
COMM 3320.001, Communication and Conflict Management, Fall 2005
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Fall 2005
COMM 3920.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2005
COMM 5900.708, Special Problems, Fall 2005
COMM 5910.708, Special Problems, Fall 2005
COMM 4829.001, Topics in Communication Processes, Summer 3W1 2005
COMM 5625.001, Communication Consulting, Spring 2005
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Spring 2005
COMM 3720.001, Small Group Communication, Spring 2005
COMM 3720.201, Small Group Communication, Spring 2005
COMM 3720.202, Small Group Communication, Spring 2005
COMM 3320.001, Communication and Conflict Management, Fall 2004
COMM 4800.700, Communication Internship, Fall 2004
COMM 3920.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2004
COMM 5220.001, Organizational Communication, Fall 2004

* Texas Education Code 51.974 (HB 2504) requires each institution of higher education to make available to the public, a syllabus for undergraduate lecture courses offered for credit by the institution.

Published Publications

Published Intellectual Contributions

Book Chapter
Richardson, B. K. (2020). Hero or “Prince of Darkness?”: Locating Peer Jacob Svenkerud in an attributions-based typology of whistleblowers.. Whistleblowing, Communication and Consequences. 151-163. Fort Worth: Routledge.
Richardson, B. K., Gravley, D. (2016). Defamation, public persecution, and death threats: Characterizing retaliation against whistle-blowers.. Dark Side of Organizational Communication. 10, 75-86. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing, Inc..
Mayer, J., Richardson, B. K. (2013). From Isolation to Connection: Former Sex Workers Conceptualize Family and Familial Interactions. S. Marrow & D. Leoutsakas (Eds.) More than Blood: Today's Reality and Tomorrow's Vision of Family. 386-397. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall Hunt Publishers.
Richardson, B. K. (2010). Service Learning Assignment: Teaching Communication Skills to Women Escaping Abusive Situations.. D. Worley, B. Hugenberg, D. Worley, & M. Elkins (Eds.) Best Practices in Experiential and Service Learning in Communication.. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.
Richardson, B. K., Hancerli, S., Gordon, C. (2009). Stakeholders in the crisis negotiation process: A qualitative study of their roles and effects.. Ozguler et al., (Eds.), Terrorism: A Global Perspective.. Turkish Institute for Security and Democracy.
Richardson, B. K., Byers, L. (2007). Communication Studies and Emergency Management: Common ground, contributions, and future research opportunities for two emerging disciplines.. D. McEntire (Ed.) Disciplines, Disasters and Emergency Management: The Convergence and Divergence of Concepts, Issues and Trends from the Research Literature. 272-283. CC Thomas.
Earnest, W., Richardson, B. K. (2007). The Press Conference Assignment.. Teaching Ideas for the Basic Course. 11, 181-187. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.
Richardson, B. K., Osterman, H., Byers, L. (2006). Showdown at University Baptist Church.. Case studies in organizations: Ethical perspectives and practices. 331-347. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Richardson, B. K., Byers, L. (2004). Communication Studies and Emergency Management: Common ground, contributions, and future research opportunities for two emerging disciplines. D. McEntire (Ed.) Disciplines, Disasters and Emergency Management: The Convergence and Divergence of Concepts, Issues and Trends in the Research Literature. Emittsburg, Md: FEMA, Higher Education Electronic Textbook. http://training.fema.gov/emiweb/downloads/Disaster%20chapterDraft%20one12.23.04.pdf
Encyclopedia Article
Richardson, B. K. (2017). Whistle-blowing. International Encyclopedia of Organizational Communication.. 1, . Chichester: Wiley Blackwell.
Richardson, B. K., undefined, u. (2016). Whistleblowing. SAGE Encyclopedia of Corporate Reputation.. 903-904. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. 3608 Homestretch Ct.,
Journal Article
Richardson, B. K., Garner, J., (2022). Stakeholders’ attributions of whistleblowers: The effects of complicity and motives on perceptions of likeability, credibility, & legitimacy.. International Journal of Business Communication. 59(3), 334-354. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2329488419863096?casa_token=cuWij0Hxv4cAAAAA:7WdcZ8g1XH9hRJJmzteQOIPG38cyvETzZUuIZQXdPNQDr6rCALL20Ebs-rBzfiQpxruOeCDIo1L5Pw
Richardson, B. K. (2022). “Death threats don’t just affect you, they affect your family”: Investigating the Impact of Whistleblowing on Family Identity.. Management Communication Quarterly. Fort Worth:. https://journals.sagepub.com/eprint/VZYD6DQMCI6V2TXMFIZN/full
Richardson, B. K., Scott, C. R. (2022). “Who do you think wrote it?”: Stakeholder tensions in a case of anonymous organizational whistleblowing.. Western Journal of Communication. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/10570314.2022.2100466?casa_token=B73QOSGCs7IAAAAA:yIQJ4Boweow7VwNeqkwfqDK7Hhxjz43zycGHMWuObGy5MmF-Dc2xnLfcBG7rSK5lwnnTi3b1kYn4Eg
Richardson, B. K., McGlynn, J. (2021). Constructing the heroic whistleblower: A social scientific approach.. 6(2), 1-28.
McGlynn, J., Boneau, R. B., Richardson, B. K. (2020). “It might also be good for your brain”: Cognitive and social benefits that motivate parents to permit youth tackle football.. Journal of Sport and Social Issues. 44(3), 261-282.
Richardson, B. K., Rains, S. A., Hall-Ortega, C. (2019). Joining in, blowing the whistle, or intervening: Examining the effect of organizational identification and severity on Greek members’ responses to hazing.. Oracle: The Research Journal of the Association of Fraternity/Sorority Advisors. 14(2), 20-38.
Siebeneck, L. K., Richardson, B. K. (2019). From Machu Picchu to Masaya Volcano: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Offering Study Abroad Courses on International Disasters and Crisis Communication. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters. 37(1), 44-56.
Boneau, R., Richardson, B. K., McGlynn, J. (2018). "We are a Football Family": Making Sense of Parents Decisions To Allow Children to Play Tackle Football. Communication & Sport. 8, 26-49. SAGE.
Richardson, B. K., Maninger, L. (2016). “We were all in the same boat”: An exploratory study of communal coping in disaster recovery.. Southern Communication Journal. 81(2), 107-122.
Gravley, D., Richardson, B. K., Allison, J. M., (2015). "Navigating the "Abyss": Using Narrative Analysis to Examine the Relationships among Whistle-blowing, Retaliation, and Identity". Management Communication Quarterly. 29(2), 171-197.
Richardson, B. K., McGlynn III, J. (2015). Blowing the whistle off the field of play: An empirical model of whistle-blower experiences in the intercollegiate sport industry. 3, 57-80.
Richardson, B. K., McGlynn, J. (2015). Blowing the whistle off the field of play: An empirical model of whistle-blower experiences in the intercollegiate sport industry.. Communication & Sport. 3(1), 57-80.
Richardson, B. K., Gravley, D., Allison, J. (2015). Navigating the narrative "abyss": Using narrative analysis to explore relationships among whistle-blowing, retaliation, and identity.. Management Communication Quarterly. 29(2), 171-197.
Richardson, B. K., Siebeneck, L. K., Shaunfield, S., Kaszynski, E. (2014). From "No Man's Land" to a "Stronger Community": Communitas as a Theoretical Framework for Successful Disaster Recovery .. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters. 32(1), 194-210.
McGlynn, J., Richardson, B. K. (2014). Public support, private alienation: Whistle-blowers and the paradox of social support. Western Journal of Communication. 78, 213-237.
Wittenberg-Lyles, E., Goldsmith, J., Richardson, B. K., Hallett, J., Clark, R. (2013). The Practical Nurse: A Case for COMFORT communication training.. American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Medicine. 30, 162-166.
Richardson, B. K., Wang, Z., Hall, C. (2012). Blowing the whistle on Greek hazing: An investigation of the Theory of Reasoned Action for predicting reporting intentions.. Communication Studies. 63(2), 172-194.
Richardson, B. K., McGlynn, J. (2011). Rabid fans, death threats, and dysfunctional stakeholders: The influence of organizational and industry contexts on whistle-blowing cases. Management Communication Quarterly. 25, 121-150.
Richardson, B. K., McGlynn, J. (2011). Rabid fans, death threats, and dysfunctional stakeholders: The influence of organizational and industry contexts on whistle-blowing cases.. Management Communication Quarterly. 25(1), 121-150.
Mayer, J., Richardson, B. K. (2010). From "Living Hell" to "New Normal": Self-identification strategies revealed in the development of personal narratives among female former sex workers.. Journal of Communication and Religion. 33, 56-86.
Richardson, B. K. (2010). Movie makers: A small group communication project.. Communication Teacher. 24(1), 30-34.
Richardson, B. K., Taylor, J. (2009). Sexual harassment at the intersection of race and gender: A theoretical model of the sexual harassment experiences of women of color.. Western Journal of Communication. 73(3), 248-272.
Richardson, B. K., Wheeless, L. (2009). The Influence of Policy Attitude and Organizational Tenure on Teachers' Reporting of Standardized Testing Protocol Violations.. International Journal of Educational Reform. 18, 46-62.
Richardson, B. K., Alexander, A., Castleberry, T. (2008). Examining teacher turnover in low-performing Texas schools: The relationship between emotional labor, communication symmetry, and intent to leave.. Communication Research Reports. 25(1), 10-22.
Richardson, B. K., Wheeless, L., Cunningham, C. (2008). Tattling on the Teacher: A Study of Factors Influencing Peer Reporting of Teachers who Violate Standardized Testing Protocol.. Communication Studies. 59(3), 202-219.
Taylor, J., Richardson, B. K. (2006). Powerlessness, resistance, and the understood "they": Sexual harassment at the intersection of race and gender.. The International and Intercultural Communication Annual. 28, 68-94.
Richardson, B. K. (2005). Teaching tips: Developing a personal philosophy on organizational ethics and wrongdoing.. Texas State Communication Journal.
Richardson, B. K. (2005). The phases of disaster as a relationship between structure and meaning: A narrative analysis of the 1947 Texas City explosion.. International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters. 23(3), 27-54.
Lewis, L., Richardson, B. K., Hamel, S. (2003). When the stakes are communicative: The lamb's and the lion's share during nonprofit planned change.. Human Communication Research.
Lewis, L., Hamel, S., Richardson, B. K. (2001). Communicating change to non-profit stakeholders: Models and predictors of implementers' approaches.. Management Communication Quarterly. 15(1), 5-41.
Scott, C., Connaughton, S., Diaz-Saenz, H., Maguire, K., Ramirez, R., Richardson, B. K., Morgan, D., Shaw, S. (1999). The impacts of communication and multiple identifications on intent to leave: A multi-methodological exploration.. Management Communication Quarterly. 12(3), 400-435.

Awarded Grants

Contracts, Grants and Sponsored Research

Grant - Research
Richardson, B. K., "Faculty Development grant," Sponsored by CLASS, University of North Texas, $1000 Funded. (December 1, 2020August 1, 2021).
Richardson, B. K. (Principal), "Small Grant," Sponsored by CLASS, University of North Texas, $1000 Funded. (December 1, 2020August 1, 2021).
,
Overall
Summative Rating
Challenge and
Engagement Index
Response Rate

out of 5

out of 7
%
of
students responded
  • Overall Summative Rating (median):
    This rating represents the combined responses of students to the four global summative items and is presented to provide an overall index of the class’s quality. Overall summative statements include the following (response options include a Likert scale ranging from 5 = Excellent, 3 = Good, and 1= Very poor):
    • The course as a whole was
    • The course content was
    • The instructor’s contribution to the course was
    • The instructor’s effectiveness in teaching the subject matter was
  • Challenge and Engagement Index:
    This rating combines student responses to several SPOT items relating to how academically challenging students found the course to be and how engaged they were. Challenge and Engagement Index items include the following (response options include a Likert scale ranging from 7 = Much higher, 4 = Average, and 1 = Much lower):
    • Do you expect your grade in this course to be
    • The intellectual challenge presented was
    • The amount of effort you put into this course was
    • The amount of effort to succeed in this course was
    • Your involvement in course (doing assignments, attending classes, etc.) was
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