Faculty Profile

Warren Burggren

Title
Professor
Department
Biological Sciences
College
College of Science

    

Education

PhD, University of East Anglia, U.K., 1976.
Major: Physiology
BS, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 1973.
Major: Biology

Current Scheduled Teaching*

BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2023
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2023
BIOL 5005.006, TOPICS IN BIOLOGY, Spring 2023
BIOL 4506.001, Biology of Extreme Environments, Fall 2022 Syllabus
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Fall 2022
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2022
BIOL 4910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2022
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2022
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2022
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2022

* Texas Education Code 51.974 (HB 2504) requires each institution of higher education to make available to the public, a syllabus for undergraduate lecture courses offered for credit by the institution.

Previous Scheduled Teaching*

BIOL 3996.750, Honors College Mentored Research Experience, Spring 2022
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2022
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2022
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2022
BIOL 5005.006, TOPICS IN BIOLOGY, Spring 2022 Syllabus SPOT
BIOL 4506.001, Biology of Extreme Environments, Fall 2021 Syllabus SPOT
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2021
BIOL 4910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2021
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2021
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2021
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2021
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 10W 2021
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2021
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2021
BIOL 4910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2021
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2021
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2021
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2021
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2021
BIOL 5005.006, TOPICS IN BIOLOGY, Spring 2021 Syllabus SPOT
BIOL 4005.006, Contemporary Topics in Biology, Fall 2020 Syllabus SPOT
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2020
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2020
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2020
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2020
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Summer 10W 2020
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2020
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Spring 2020
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2020
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2020
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2020
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2020
BIOL 5005.006, TOPICS IN BIOLOGY, Spring 2020
BIOL 4005.006, Contemporary Topics in Biology, Fall 2019 Syllabus SPOT
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Fall 2019
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2019
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2019
BIOL 4910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2019
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2019
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2019
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2019
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 10W 2019
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W1 2019
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Spring 2019
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2019
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2019
BIOL 5005.006, TOPICS IN BIOLOGY, Spring 2019 SPOT
BIOL 4005.006, Contemporary Topics in Biology, Fall 2018 Syllabus SPOT
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Fall 2018
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2018
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Fall 2018
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2018
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2018
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2018
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 10W 2018
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Spring 2018
BIOL 4951.750, Honors College Capstone Thesis, Spring 2018
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2018
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Spring 2018
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2018
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2018
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2018
BIOL 5005.006, TOPICS IN BIOLOGY, Spring 2018 SPOT
BIOL 4005.006, Contemporary Topics in Biology, Fall 2017 Syllabus SPOT
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Fall 2017
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2017
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2017
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2017
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2017
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Summer 5W1 2017
BIOL 3996.707, Honors College Mentored Research Experience, Summer 10W 2017
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Summer 5W2 2017
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W2 2017
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 10W 2017
BIOL 5870.001, Developmental Integrative Biology Seminar, Spring 2017 SPOT
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Spring 2017
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2017
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2017
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2017
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2017
BIOL 5005.006, TOPICS IN BIOLOGY, Spring 2017 SPOT
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2016
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2016
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2016
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2016
BIOL 5005.006, TOPICS IN BIOLOGY, Fall 2016 SPOT
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Summer 5W2 2016
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 10W 2016
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Spring 2016
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2016
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Spring 2016
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2016
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2016
BIOL 5005.006, TOPICS IN BIOLOGY, Spring 2016 SPOT
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Fall 2015
BIOL 3996.740, Honors College Mentored Research Experience, Fall 2015
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2015
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Fall 2015
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2015
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2015
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2015
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Summer 10W 2015
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Summer 5W2 2015
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Summer 5W2 2015
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Spring 2015
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2015
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Spring 2015
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2015
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2015
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Fall 2014
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2014
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Fall 2014
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2014
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2014
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2014
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Summer 10W 2014
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 10W 2014
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Spring 2014
BIOL 4951.750, Honors College Capstone Thesis, Spring 2014
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2014
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Spring 2014
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2014
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2014
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2014
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2014
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Fall 2013
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2013
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Fall 2013
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2013
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2013
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2013
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Summer 10W 2013
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 10W 2013
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W1 2013
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W1 2013
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Spring 2013
BIOL 3996.750, Honors College Mentored Research Experience, Spring 2013
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2013
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Spring 2013
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2013
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2013
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Fall 2012
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2012
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Fall 2012
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2012
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Summer 10W 2012
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 10W 2012
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W2 2012
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W1 2012
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W1 2012
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W2 2012
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Spring 2012
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2012
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Spring 2012
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2012
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2011
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Fall 2011
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2011
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2011
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2011
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 8W1 2011
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2011
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Spring 2011
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2011
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2011
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2011
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2011
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2010
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Fall 2010
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2010
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2010
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2010
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Summer 5W1 2010
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Summer 5W2 2010
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Summer 5W1 2010
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W1 2010
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Spring 2010
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2010
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2010
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2010
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Fall 2009
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2009
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2009
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2009
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2009
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Summer 5W1 2009
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Summer 5W2 2009
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Summer 5W1 2009
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W2 2009
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W1 2009
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Spring 2009
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2009
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2009
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Fall 2008
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2008
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2008
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Summer 5W1 2008
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Summer 5W1 2008
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Summer 5W2 2008
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W2 2008
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W2 2008
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Spring 2008
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2008
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2008
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2007
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Summer 5W1 2007
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Summer 5W2 2007
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 10W 2007
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W2 2007
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Spring 2007
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2007
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Spring 2007
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2007
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2007
BIOL 6950.750, Doctoral Dissertation, Fall 2006
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2006
BIOL 5950.750, Master's Thesis, Fall 2006
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2006
BIOL 5905.750, Special Problems, Fall 2006
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Summer 10W 2006
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Summer 5W2 2006
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Summer 5W1 2006
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 10W 2006
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2006
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2006
BIOL 5905.750, Special Problems, Spring 2006
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2006
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2006
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Fall 2005
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2005
BIOL 5905.750, Special Problems, Fall 2005
BIOL 6900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2005
BIOL 6910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2005
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W2 2005
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Summer 5W1 2005
BIOL 6940.750, Individual Research, Spring 2005
BIOL 4900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2005
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Spring 2005
BIOL 5905.750, Special Problems, Spring 2005
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Spring 2005
BIOL 4910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2004
BIOL 4930.750, Special Problems, Fall 2004
BIOL 5900.750, Special Problems, Fall 2004
BIOL 5905.750, Special Problems, Fall 2004
BIOL 5910.750, Special Problems, Fall 2004

* Texas Education Code 51.974 (HB 2504) requires each institution of higher education to make available to the public, a syllabus for undergraduate lecture courses offered for credit by the institution.

Published Publications

Published Intellectual Contributions

Book
Burggren, W. W., Dubansky, B. (2018). Development and Environment. 467. Berlin: Springer.
Burggren, W. W. (2016). Study Guide for Biological Science. (6th Edition), . Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Burggren, W. W. (2010). Study Guide for Biological Science.
Burggren, W. W. (2008). Study Guide for Biological Science 3rd Ed..
Burggren, W. W. (2006). Comparative Developmental Physiology.
Burggren, W. W. (2005). Study Guide for Biological Science 2nd Ed..
Burggren, W. W. (2002). Study Guide for Biological Science.
Burggren, W. W. (2002). Study Techniques for the Sciences.
Burggren, W. W. (2001). Animal Physiology 5th Ed..
Burggren, W. W. (2001). Study Guide to Accompany Life, the Science of Biology 6th Ed..
Burggren, W. W. (1997). Development of Cardiovascular Systems: Molecules to Organisms.
Burggren, W. W. (1997). Eckert Animal Physiology.
Burggren, W. W. (1992). Environmental Physiology of the Amphibia.
Burggren, W. W. (1988). Biology of the Land Crabs.
Burggren, W. W. (1987). New Directions in Physiological Ecology.
Burggren, W. W. (1987). The Biology and Evolution of Lungfishes.
Burggren, W. W. (1985). Cardiovascular Shunts: Phylogenetic, Ontogenetic and Clinical Aspects.
Burggren, W. W. (1981). The Evolution of Air Breathing in Vertebrates.
Book Chapter
Burggren, W. W. (2021). Gobierno y Autonomia Universitaria en Canada, Estados Unidos y Mexico: Un Estudio Comparativo.. Autonomia: Legado y Futuro. Toluca, State of Mexico: Prensa del la Universidad del Estado de Mexico..
Pelster, B., Burggren, W. W. (2018). Responses to Environmental Stressors in Developing Animals: Costs and Benefits of Phenotypic Plasticity. Development and Environment. Cham: Springer.
Burggren, W. W., Dubansky, B. (2018). The Nexus of Development and Environment. Development and Environment. 1-5. Berlin: Springer.
Burggren, W. W., Dubansky, B., Bautista, N. (2017). Cardiovascular Development of Embryonic and Larval Fishes. 36B, . New York, New York: Academic Press.
Burggren, W. W. (2017). Epigenetics in insects: Mechanisms, phenotypes, and ecological and evolutionary implications. 53, .
Burggren, W. W., Chapman, K. D., Monticino, M. G., Torday, J. (2017). Interdisciplinarity In The Biological Sciences.. (2), . Oxford University Press.
Burggren, W. W. (2015). The Physiology of the Avian Embryo. (6th Edition), . New York, New York: Elsevier.
Burggren, W. W. (2010). Interdisciplinarity In The Biological Sciences. In Handbook of Interdisciplinarity. Eds. Frodeman, R, Mitchum, C and Hollbrook, J.B..
Burggren, W. W. (2009). Chemoreceptive Control of Ventilation in Amphibians and Air-Breathing Fishes. In: Structure, Evolution and Function of the Airway Chemoreceptors in the Vertebrates. Eds. Zaccone, G., Cutz, E., Adriaensen, D., Nurse, C., and Mauceri, A. Science Publishers, Enfield,N.H..
Burggren, W. W. (2008). Cardiovascular Anatomy and Physiology of Larval Fishes. In Fish Larval Physiology. N. Finn, B.G. Kapoor.
Burggren, W. W. (2007). Evolution of Cardiovascular Systems. In The Endothelium: A Comprehensive Reference Ed. W. Aird.
Burggren, W. W. (2006). Complexity change during physiological development. In: Comparative Developmental Physiology. Eds. Warburton, S., Burggren, W.W., Pelster, B., Reiber, C, and Spicer, J..
Burggren, W. W. (2006). Development of endothermic heart rate response in emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) embryos. In New Insights into Fundamental Physiology and Peri-natal Adaptation of Domestic Fowl. Eds. S. Yahav and B. Tzchentke P. 29-42.
Burggren, W. W. (2006). Does sequence of exposure to altered ambient temperatures affect the endothermic heart rate response of newly hatched chicks? In New Insights into Fundamental Physiology and Peri-natal Adaptation of Domestic Fowl. Eds. S.Yahav and B. Tzschentke P. 15-28.
Burggren, W. W. (2002). Form, Function and the Nature of Adaptation. In Biological Science, S. Freeman.
Burggren, W. W. (1998). Pulmonary function in reptiles. In Biology of the Reptilia, Vol. 19, Morphology Eds. C. C. Gans and A. Gaunt. P . 297-374.
Burggren, W. W. (1997). Amphibian Cardiovascular Development. In Development of Cardiovascular Systems: Molecules to Organisms. Eds. Burggren, W.W. and B. Keller. P. 166-182.
Burggren, W. W. (1997). Future Directions in Developmental Cardiovascular Sciences. In Development of Cardiovascular Systems: Molecules to Organisms. Eds. Burggren, W.W. and B. Keller. P . 281-286.
Burggren, W. W. (1997). Vertebrate cardiovascular systems. In Handbook of Comparative Physiology Ed. W. Dantzler. P. 215-308.
Burggren, W. W. (1997). Why Study Cardiovascular Development? In Development of Cardiovascular Systems: Molecules to Organisms. Eds. Burggren, W.W. and B. Keller. P . 1-4.
Burggren, W. W. (1995). Central cardiovascular function in amphibians: qualitative influences of phylogeny, ontogeny and seasonality. In: Mechanisms of Systemic Regulation: Vol. 1 Respiration and Circulation. Ed. N. Heisler P. 175-197.
Burggren, W. W. (1995). Early Development of Blood Oxygen Transport. In Hypoxia and Brain. Eds. J. Houston and J. Coates. P. 45-56.
Burggren, W. W. (1992). Developmental changes in Amphibian physiological systems. In Environmental Physiology of the Amphibia. Eds. M.E. Feder and W.W. Burggren.
Burggren, W. W. (1992). Redistribution of cardiac output in response to hypoxia: a comparison of the freshwater crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, and the lobster, Homarus americanus. In Phylogenetic Models in Functional Coupling of the CNS and the Cardiovascular System. Comparative Physiology vol. 11:22-28. Eds. R.B. Hill, K. Kuwasawa, B.R. McMahon and T. Kuramoto.
Burggren, W. W. (1992). Respiratory Metamorphosis during the Water-to-Land Transitions in Developing Vertebrates and Invertebrates. In The Vertebrate Gas Transport Cascade: Adaptations to Environment and Mode of Life. Eds. E. Bicudo, M. Glass and A. Abe.
Burggren, W. W. (1992). The Importance of an Ontogenetic Perspective in Physiological Studies: Amphibian Cardiology as a Case Study. In Physiological Adaptations in Vertebrates:, Respiration, Circulation and Metabolism. Editor S.C. Wood, R. Weber, A. Hargens and R., Millard. P. 235-253.
Burggren, W. W. (1991). Does comparative respiratory physiology have a role in evolutionary biology (and vice versa)? In Comparative Insights into Strategies for Gas Exchange and Metabolism. Eds. A.J. Woakes, M.K. Grieshaber, and C.R Bridges. P. 1-13.
Burggren, W. W. (1991). Respiration and Metabolism. In Comparative Animal Physiology, 4th Edition. Ed. C. Ladd Prosser. P.353-435.
Burggren, W. W. (1990). Studying physiological evolution: Paradigms and pitfalls. In: Evolutionary Innovations: Patterns and Processes. Ed. M.H. NItecki. P. 191-228.
Burggren, W. W. (1989). The structure and function of amphibian lungs. In Comparative Pulmonary Physiology: Current Concepts. Ed. S. Wood. P. 153-192.
Burggren, W. W. (1988). Circulation. In Biology of the Land Crabs. Editors W. W. Burggren and B.R. McMahon. P. 298-332.
Burggren, W. W. (1988). Respiration. In Biology of the Land Crabs. Eds. W. W. Burggren and B.R. McMahon.
Burggren, W. W. (1987). Invasive and Non-invasive Methodologies in Physiological Ecology: A Plea for Integration. In New Directions in Physiological Ecology. Eds. Feder, M.E., Bennett, A. F., Burggren, W.W., and Huey, R. P. 251-272.
Burggren, W. W. (1986). Respiration in primitive fishes. In: The Biology of Primitive Fishes. Eds. R.E. Foreman, A. Gorbman, J. M. Dodd and R. Olsson. P. 217-252.
Burggren, W. W. (1985). Hemodynamics and Regulation of Cardiovascular Shunts in Reptiles. In Cardiovascular Shunts: Phylogenetic, Ontogenetic and Clinical Aspects. Eds. K. Johansen and W. Burggren. P. 121-142.
Burggren, W. W. (1985). The regulation of cutaneous gas exchange in vertebrates. In Current Topics and Trends: Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry. Vol. A: Respiration, Circulation, Metabolism. Ed. R. Gilles. P. 101-113.
Burggren, W. W. (1984). Transition of Respiratory Processes during Amphibian Metamorphosis: From Egg to Adult. In Respiration and Metabolism in Embryonic Vertebrates. Editor R. Seymour. P. 31-53.
Burggren, W. W. (1980). Cardiovascular Function in Lower Vertebrates. In Hearts and Heart-like Organs. Editor G. Bourne. P. 61-117.
Book Review
Burggren, W. W. (1997). Review of "Air Breathing Fishes: Evolution, Diversity, and Adaptation" by Jeffrey B. Graham.
Journal Article
Burggren, W. W., Lewallen, M. (2022). Metabolic Cost of Development, Regeneration, and Reproduction in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology.
Goepel, T., Burggren, W. W. (2022). Cores of Reproducibility in Physiology: Insufficient Reporting of Experimental Variables as a Cause for Non-Reproducibility in Animal Physiology? A Case Study. American Journal of Physiology. 323(3), R363-R374..
Branum, S., Tazawa, H., Burggren, W. W. (2022). Physiological Regulation of Growth, Hematology and Blood Gases in Chicken Embryos in Response to Low and High Incubation Humidity. Frontiers in Physiology.
Vazquez Roman, K., Burggren, W. W. (2022). Metabolic responses to crude oil during early life stages reveal critical developmental windows in the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology.
Martinez Bautista, G., Martínez-Burguete, T., Peña-Marín, E., Jiménez Martínez, E., Camirillo-Coop, S., Burggren, W. W., Álvarez-González, A. (2022). Hypoxia- and hyperoxia-related gene expression dynamics during developmental critical windows of the tropical gar Atractosteus tropicus.. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology.
Dunton, A., Göpel, R., Ho, D., Burggren, W. W. (2021). Form and function of the vertebrate and invertebrate blood-brain barriers. International Journal of Molecular Sciences.
Córdova-de la Cruz, S., Martinéz Bautista, G., Peña-Marín, E., Martinéz-Garcia, R., Núñez-Nogueira, G., Adams, R., Burggren, W. W., Álvarez-González, C. (2021). Morphological and cardiac alterations after crude oil exposure in the early-life stages of the tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus).. Environmental Science and Pollution Research.
Flores Santin, J., Burggren, W. W. (2021). Beyond the Chicken: Alternative Avian Models for Developmental Physiological Research. Frontiers in Physiology.
Burggren, W. W. (2021). Putting the August Krogh Principle to Work in Developmental Physiology. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology.
Hamilton, T., Krook, J., Szaszkiewicz, J., Burggren, W. W. (2021). Shoaling, boldness, anxiety-like behavior and locomotion in zebrafish (Danio rerio) are altered by acute benzo[a]pyrene exposure. Science of the Total Environment.
Bautista, N., Amaral, L., Dzialowski, E. M., Burggren, W. W. (2021). Dietary Exposure to Low Levels of Crude Oil Affects Physiological and Morphological Phenotype in Adults and Their Eggs and Hatchlings of The King Quail (Coturnix chinensis).. Frontiers in Physiology.
Burggren, W. W. (2021). Developmental Physiology: Grand challenges. Frontiers in Physiology.
Amaral-Silva, L., Rojas Santich, M., Dubansky, B., Tazawa, H., Burggren, W. W. (2021). Embryotoxicity and physiological compensation in chicken embryos exposed to crude oil.. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry.
Hamilton, t., Szaszkiewicz, J., Krook, j., Burggren, W. W. (2021). Analysis of the potential behavioral impact of methanol when used as a solvent: Dataset from zebrafish (Danio rerio) behavioral research. Data in Brief.
Martinez, G., Alvarez, A., Peña, E., Martínez, R., Camarillo, S., Burggren, W. W. (2021). Survival, growth, and development in the early stages of the tropical gar Atractosteus tropicus: Developmental critical windows and the influence of temperature, salinity and oxygen saturation. Fishes.
Karki, M., Jangid, R., Anish, R., Seerva, R., Bertocchio, J., Hotta, T., Msaouel, P., Jung, S., Grimm, S., Coarfa, C., Weissman, B., Ohi, R., Verhey, K., Hodges,, H., Burggren, W. W., Dere, R., Park, I., Prasad, B., Rathmell, W., Walker, C., Tripathi, D. (2021). A Cytoskeletal Function for PBRM1 Reading Methylated Microtubules. Science Advances.
Burggren, W. W., Rojas Antich, M. (2020). Angiogenesis in the Avian Embryo Chorioallantoic Membrane: A Perspective on Research Trends and A Case Study on Toxicant Vascular Effects. 7(4), 56.
Saddrudin, S., Barnett, B., Ku, L., Havemann, D., Jucowski, S., Herrington, R., Burggren, W. W. (2020). Maternal serum concentration of anti-Müllerian hormone is a better predictor than follicle stimulating hormone of successful blastocysts development during IVF treatment.. PLOS One.
Lewallen, M., Burggren, W. W. (2020). Metabolic physiology of the freshwater planaria Girardia dorotocephela and Schmidtea mediterranea: Reproductive mode, specific dynamic action and temperature. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 319(4), R428-R438.
Amaral, L., Tazawa, H., Bicego, K., Burggren, W. W. (2020). Metabolic and Hematological Responses to Endotoxin-Induced Inflammation in Chicks Experiencing Embryonic TCDD Exposure. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry. 39(11), 2208-2220..
Bautista, N., Crespel, A., Padilla, P. A., Crossley, J., Burggren, W. W. (2020). Parental Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance related to dietary crude oil exposure in Danio rerio. Journal of Experimental Biology. jeb.222224.
Walker, C., Burggren, W. W. (2020). Remodeling the epigenome and (epi)cytoskeleton: A new paradigm for co-regulation by methylation. Journal of Experimental Biology. 223, .
Damsgaard, C., Baliga, V., Bates, E., Burggren, W. W., McKenzie, D., Taylor, T., Wright, P. (2020). Evolutionary and Cardio-Respiratory Physiology of Air-breathing and Amphibious Fishes. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica. In Press, .
Magnuson, J., Bautista, N., JoAnn, L., Lund, A., Xu, E., Schlenk, D., Burggren, W. W., Roberts, A. (2020). Exposure to crude oil induces retinal apoptosis and impairs visual function in fish. Environmental Science & Technology. 54(5), 2843–2850.
Garduno, M., M., Mendez Sanchez, F., García Martínez, J. (2020). Metabolic rate and hypoxia tolerance in Girardinichthys multiradiatus (Pisces: Goodeidae), an endemic fish at high altitude in tropical Mexico.. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 239, 110576.
Burggren, W. W. (2020). Phenotypic switching resulting from developmental plasticity: Fixed or reversible?. 10, 13.
Burggren, W. W., Filigonio, R., Wang, T. (2019). Cardiovascular shunting in vertebrates: a practical integration of competing hypotheses. Biological Reviews. 95(2), 49-471.
Burggren, W. W., Arriaga-Bernal, C., Mendez-Arzate, P., Mendez-Sanchez, F. (2019). Metabolic physiology of the Mayan cichlid fish (Mayaheros uropthalmus): Re-examination of classification as an oxyconformer.. Journal of Fish Biology. 237(110538), .
Burggren, W. W. (2019). Very High Blood Oxygen Affinity And Large Bohr Shift Differentiates The Air-Breathing Siamese Fighting Fish (Betta Splendens) From The Closely Related Anabantoid The Blue Gourami (Trichopodus Trichopterus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 29, 45-51.
Mendez-Sanchez, F., Burggren, W. W. (2019). Hypoxia-Induced Developmental Plasticity of Larval Growth, Gill and Labyrinth Organ Morphometrics in Two Anabantoid Fish: the Facultative Air-breather Siamese Fighting Fish (Betta splendens) and the Obligate Air-breather the Blue Gourami (Trichopodus trichopterus). Journal of Morphology. 280(2), 193-204.
Bautista, N., Burggren, W. W. (2019). Parental stressor exposure simultanteously conveys both adaptive and maladaptive larval phenotypes through epigenetic inheritance in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).. Journal of Experimental Biology. 222(17), pii: jeb208918.
Pasparakis, C., Grosell, M., Esbaugh, A., Burggren, W. W. (2019). Physiological impacts of DeepWater Horizon oil on fish. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology. (224), 108558.
Burggren, W. W., Mendez-Sanchez, F., Peña, E., Martinez-Garcia, R., Alvarez Gonzalez, A. (2019). Developmental changes in oxygen consumption and hypoxia, tolerance in the heat and hypoxia-adapted tabasco line of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, with a survey of the metabolic literature for the genus Oreochromis. Journal of Fish Biology. 94(5), 732-744.
Burggren, W. W., Bautista, N. (2019). Invited review: Development of acid-base regulation invertebrates.. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 236, .
Ho, D., Burggren, W. W. (2019). Blood-brain barrier function, cell viability, and gene expression of tight junction-associated proteins in the mouse are disrupted by crude oil, benzo[a]pyrene, and the dispersant Corexit. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology. (223), 96-105.
Velazquez, A., García-Cruz, A., Burggren, W. W., RodrÍguez-Romero, F. (2019). Physical and chemical variables promote successful nesting in high mountain Sceloporus Lizards in Central México.. Journal of Herpetology. 75(2), 134-142.
Perrichon, P., Stieglitz, J. D., Xu, E. G., Magnuson, J. T., Pasparakis, C., Mager, E. M., Wang, Y., Schlenk, D., Benetti, D. D., Roberts, A. P., Grosell, M., Burggren, W. W. (2019). Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) life development: morphological, physiological, behavioral and molecular phenotypes.. 248(5), 337-350.
Burggren, W. W., Mendez-Sanchez, F., Marinez Bautista, G., Pena, E., Martinez Garcia, R., Alvarez Gonzalez, A. (2019). Developmental changes in oxygen consumption and hypoxia, tolerance in the heat and hypoxia-adapted tabasco line of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, with a survey of the metabolic literature for the genus Oreochromis. Journal of Fish Biology. 94(5), 732-744.
Burggren, W. W. (2019). Inadequacy of typical physiological experimental protocols for investigating consequences of stochastic weather events emerging from global warming. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 316(4), R318-R322.
Bautista, N., Pothini, T., Meng, K., Burggren, W. W. (2019). Behavioral consequences of dietary exposure to crude oil extracts in the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens).. Aquatic Toxicology. 207, 32-42..
Perrichon, P., Mager, E., Pasparakis, C., Stieglitz, J., Benetti, D., Grosell, M., Burggren, W. W. (2018). Combined effects of elevated temperature and Deepwater Horizon oil exposure on the cardiac performance of larval mahi-mahi, Coryphaena hippurus.. PLOS One. 13(10), e0203949..
Burggren, W. W. (2018). Developmental phenotypic plasticity helps bridge stochastic weather events associated with climate change. Journal of Experimental Biology. 221(jeb161984), 9.
Flores-Santin, J., Antich Rojas, M., Tazawa, H., Burggren, W. W. (2018). Hematology from embryo to adult in the bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus): Differential effects in the adult of clutch, sex and hypoxic incubation. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 218, 24-34.
Hawkins, K. S., Burggren, W. W., Halbert, M. D., Madasu, D. K. (2018). Marketing via Email Solicitation by Predatory (and Legitimate) Journals: An Evaluation of Quality, Frequency and Relevance. Journal of Librarianship and Scholarly Communication. 6(General Issue), eP2246. Pacific University Libraries. https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc1393803/
Perrichon, P., Mager, E. M., Pasparakis, C., Stieglitz, J. D., Benetti, D. D., Grosell, M., Burggren, W. W. (2018). Combined effects of elevated temperature and Deepwater Horizon oil exposure on the cardiac performance of larval mahi-mahi, Coryphaena hippurus.. PLOS One. 13(10), e0203949.
Dubansky, B., Verbeck, G. F., Mach, P., Burggren, W. W. (2018). Methodology for exposing avian embryos to quantified levels of airborne aromatic compounds associated with crude oil spills..
Tattersal, G., Burggren, W. W. (2017). Xenopus and the art of oxygen maintenance. Journal of Experimental Biology. Journal of Experimental Biology. 4084-4087.
Burggren, W. W., Souder, B., Ho, D. (2017). Metabolic rate and hypoxia tolerance are affected by group interactions and sex in the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster): New data and a literature survey.. Biology Open. 2017:6, 471-480.
Reyna, K., Burggren, W. W. (2017). Altered embryonic development in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) induced by pre-incubation oscillatory thermal stresses mimicking global warming predictions.. PLOS One. 12(9), e0184670.
Burggren, W. W., Elmonoufy, N. A. (2017). Critical developmental windows for morphology and hematology revealed by intermittent and continuous hypoxic incubation in embryos of quail (Coturnix coturnix).. PLOS One. 12(9), e0183649.
Mendez-Sanchez, J. F., Burggren, W. W. (2017). Cardiorespiratory physiological phenotypic plasticity in developing air-breathing anabantid fishes (<i>Betta splendens</i> and <i>Trichopodus trichopterus</i>).. Other. 5(15), .
Perrichon, P., Grosell, M., Burggren, W. W. (2017). Heart Performance Determination by Visualization in Larval Fishes: Influence of Alternative Models for Heart Shape and Volume.. Frontiers in Physiology. 8, 464.
Perrichon, P., Pasparakis, C., Mager, E. M., Stieglitz, J. D., Benetti, D. D., Grosell, M., Burggren, W. W. (2017). Morphology and cardiac physiology are differentially affected by temperature in developing larvae of the marine fish mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Biology Open. 6(6), 800–809. http://bio.biologists.org/content/6/6/800
Mueller, C. A., Tazawa, H., Burggren, W. W. (2017). Dynamics of acid-base and hematological regulation in day 15 chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus) exposed to graded hypercapnia and hypoxia.. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 239, 55-63.
Khursigara, A. J., Perrichon, P., Martinez Bautista, N., Burggren, W. W., Esbaugh, A. J. (2017). Cardiac function and survival are affected by crude oil in larval red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus.. Other. 579, 797-804.
Bolin, G., Dubansky, B., Burggren, W. W. (2017). Incubation relative humidity induces renal morphological and physiological remodeling in the embryo of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).. Other. 204, 185-196.
Burggren, W. W., Rojas, M., Flores Santin, J. (2016). Cardio-respiratory development in bird embryos: new insights from a venerable animal model.. 45(11), 709-728.
Shell, L., Burggren, W. W., Muirhead, D., Nelson, T. C., Dzialowski, E. M. (2016). Circulatory changes associated with the closure of the ductus arteriosus in hatching emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 191, 202–208. Pergamon.
Burggren, W. W. (2016). Epigenetic inheritance and its role in evolutionary biology: Re-evaluation and new perspectives.. 5(2), 24.
Crossley II, D. A., Burggren, W. W., Reiber, C. L., Altimiras, J., Rodnick, K. J. (2016). Mass Transport: Circulatory System with Emphasis on Nonendothermic Species.. Comprehensive Physiology. 7(1), 17-66.
Watson, C. M., Burggren, W. W. (2016). Interspecific Differences in Metabolic Rate and Metabolic Temperature Sensitivity Create Distinct Thermal Ecological Niches in Lizards (Plestiodon).. PLOS One. 11(10), e0164713.
Burggren, W. W., Bautista, G. M., Coop, S. C., Couturier, G. M., Delgadillo, S. P., García, R. M., González CAA, (2016). Developmental cardiorespiratory physiology of the air-breathing tropical gar, Atractosteus tropicus.. Other. 311(4), R689-R701.
Oziolor, E. M., Dubansky, B., Burggren, W. W., Matson, C. W. (2016). Cross-resistance in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) populations resistant to dioxin-like compounds.. Other. 175, 222-31.
Branum, S. R., Tazawa, H., Burggren, W. W. (2016). Phenotypic developmental plasticity induced by preincubation egg storage in chicken embryos (Gallus gallus domesticus).. Other. 4(4), .
Mueller, C. A., Willis, E., Burggren, W. W. (2016). Salt sensitivity of the morphometry of Artemia franciscana during development: a demonstration of 3D critical windows.. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 219(Pt 4), 571-81.
Burggren, W. W., Dubansky, B., Roberts, A. P., Alloy, M. (2015). Deepwater horizon oil spill as a case study for interdisciplinary cooperation within developmental biology, environmental sciences and physiology. World Journal of Engineering and Technology. 3(04), 7. Scientific Research Publishing.
Lewallen, M. A., Burggren, W. W. (2015). Chronic hypoxia and hyperoxia modifies morphology and VEGF concentration of the lungs of the developing chicken (Gallus gallus variant domesticus).. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 219, 85-94.
Kohl, Z. F., Crossley II, D. A., Tazawa, H., Burggren, W. W. (2015). Dynamics of blood viscosity regulation during hypoxic challenges in the chicken embryo (Gallus gallus domesticus).. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 190, 1-8.
Burggren, W. W., Mueller, C. A., Tazawa, H. (2015). Hypercapnic thresholds for embryonic acid-base metabolic compensation and hematological regulation during CO2 challenges in layer and broiler chicken strains.. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 215, 1-12.
Mueller, C. A., Eme, J., Burggren, W. W., Roghair, R. D., Rundle, S. D. (2015). Challenges and opportunities in developmental integrative physiology.. Other. 184, 113-24.
Burggren, W. W., Mueller, C. A. (2015). Developmental critical windows and sensitive periods as three-dimensional constructs in time and space.. Other. 88(2), 91-102.
Burggren, W. W. (2015). Dynamics of epigenetic phenomena: intergenerational and intragenerational phenotype 'washout'.. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 218(Pt 1), 80-7.
Mueller, C. A., Crossley II, D. A., Burggren, W. W. (2014). The actions of the renin-angiotensin system on cardiovascular and osmoregulatory function in embryonic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 178, 37-45.
Burggren, W. W., Crews, D. (2014). Epigenetics in comparative biology: why we should pay attention.. Integrative and Comparative Biology. 54(1), 7-20.
Hala, D., Huggett, D. B., Burggren, W. W. (2014). Environmental stressors and the epigenome.. Other. 12, e3-8.
Andrewartha, S. J., Tazawa, H., Burggren, W. W. (2014). Acute regulation of hematocrit and acid-base balance in chicken embryos in response to severe intrinsic hypercapnic hypoxia.. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 195, 1-10.
Mendez-Sanchez, J. F., Burggren, W. W. (2014). Environmental modulation of the onset of air breathing and survival of Betta splendens and Trichopodus trichopterus.. Journal of Fish Biology. 84(3), 794-807.
Burggren, W. W. (2014). Epigenetics as a source of variation in comparative animal physiology - or - Lamarck is lookin' pretty good these days.. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 217(Pt 5), 682-9.
Burggren, W. W., Christoffels, V. M., Crossley, D. A., Enok, S., Farrell, A. P., Hedrick, M. S., Hicks, J. W., Jensen, B., Moorman, A. F., Mueller, C. A., Skovgaard, N., Taylor, E. W., Wang, T. (2014). Comparative cardiovascular physiology: future trends, opportunities and challenges.. Acta physiologica (Oxford, England). 210(2), 257-76.
Burggren, W. W., Christoffels, V. M., Crossley II, D. A., Enok, S., Farrell, A. P., Hedrick, M. S., Hicks, J. W., Jensen, B., Moorman, A. F., Mueller, C. A., Skovgaard, N., Taylor, E. W., Wang, T. (2014). Comparative cardiovascular physiology: future trends, opportunities and challenges.. Acta physiologica (Oxford, England). 210(2), 257-76.
Alvine, T., Burggren, W. W. (2014). Renal, metabolic and hematological effects of trans-retinoic acid during critical developmental windows in the embryonic chicken.. Other. 184(1), 107-23.
Burggren, W. W. Cardiovascular development and angiogenesis in the early vertebrate embryo..
Burggren, W. W. (2013). Dynamics of metabolic compensation and hematological changes in chicken (Gallus gallus) embryos exposed to hypercapnia with varying oxygen..
Burggren, W. W. Ontogeny of hypoxic modulation of cardiac performance and its allometry in the african clawed frog Xenopus laevis..
Mueller, C. A., Burggren, W. W., Crossley II, D. A. (2013). ANG II and baroreflex control of heart rate in embryonic chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus).. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 305(8), R855-63.
Burggren, W. W. (2012). Acute regulation of hematocrit and blood acid-base balance during severe hypoxic challenges in late chicken embryos (Gallus gallus)..
Burggren, W. W. (2012). Cardiac and Metabolic physiology of early larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) reflects parental swimming stamina..
Burggren, W. W. (2012). Hypoxic level and duration differentially affect embryonic organ system development of the chicken (Gallus gallus)..
Burggren, W. W. (2012). Interactions of acid-base balance and hematocrit regulation during environmental respiratory gas challenges in developing chicken embryos Gallus gallus)..
Burggren, W. W. (2012). Parental hypoxic exposure confers offspring hypoxia resistance in zebra fish (Danio rerio)..
Burggren, W. W. (2012). Upper Lethal Temperatures of Northern Bobwhite Embryos and the Thermal Properties of Their Eggs. 91(1): 41-6.
Burggren, W. W. (2011). Development of hematological respiratory variables in late chicken embryos: The relative importance of incubation time and embryo mass..
Burggren, W. W., Reyna, K. (2011). Developmental trajectories, critical windows and phenotypic alteration during cardio-respiratory development. Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology. 178(1), 13–21. Elsevier.
Burggren, W. W. (2011). Developmental trajectories, critical windows and phenotypic alteration during cardio-respiratory development..
Burggren, W. W. (2011). Egg yolk environment differentially influences physiological and morphological development of broiler and layer chicken embryos..
Burggren, W. W. (2011). Embryonic control of heart rate: Examining developmental patterns and temperature and oxygenation influences using embryonic avian models..
Burggren, W. W. (2011). Hematocrit and blood osmolality in developing chicken embryos (Gallus gallus): in vivo and in vitro regulation..
Burggren, W. W. (2010). Empowering 21st century biology..
Burggren, W. W. (2010). Epigenetics and transgernational transfer: a physiological perspective ..
Burggren, W. W. (2010). Frontiers in aquatic physiology - grand challenge..
Burggren, W. W. (2010). Metabolic allometry during development and metamorphosis of the silkworm, Bombyx mori : analyses, patterns and mechanisms. </b>.
Burggren, W. W. (2010). The silk cocoon of the silkworm, Bombyx mori : micro structure and transmural diffusion of oxygen and water vapor..
Burggren, W. W. (2009). Development of cardiac form and function in ectothermic sauropsids. Journal of Morphology. 270(11):1400-1412..
Burggren, W. W. (2009). Implementation of the National Science Foundation's 'broader impacts': Efficiency considerations and alternative approaches..
Burggren, W. W. (2009). Physiological study of larval fishes: challenges and opportunities ..
Burggren, W. W. (2009). Triiodothyronine (T3) action on locomotor behavior during metamorphosis of the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana..
Crossley II, D. A., Burggren, W. W. (2009). Development of cardiac form and function in ectothermic sauropsids.. Journal of Morphology. 270(11), 1400-12.
Burggren, W. W. (2008). 'Blood-doping' effects on hematocrit regulation and oxygen consumption in late-state chicken embryos (Gallus gallus)..
Burggren, W. W. (2007). Amphibians as animal models in physiological studies..
Dzialowski, E. M., Burggren, W. W., Komoro, T., Tazawa, H. (2007). Development of endothermic metabolic response in embryos and hatchlings of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae). Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology. 155(3), 286–292. Elsevier.
Burggren, W. W. (2007). Endothermic heart rate response in broile and White Leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) during the firt two days of post-hatch life..
Yoneta, H., Dzialowski, E. M., Burggren, W. W., Tazawa, H. (2007). Endothermic heart rate response in broiler and White Leghorn chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) during the first two days of post-hatch life. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 147(2), 529–535. Pergamon.
Burggren, W. W. (2007). Role of hypoxia in the evolution and development of the cardiovascular system..
Burggren, W. W. (2007). Why respiratory biology? The meaning and significance of respiration and its integrative study..
Burggren, W. W. (2006). A three-dimensional functional assessment of heart and vessel development in the larva of the zebrafish (Danio rerio)..
Fukuoka, S., Khandoker, A., Dzialowski, E. M., Burggren, W. W., Tazawa, H. (2006). Development of endothermic heart rate response in emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) embryos. Other.
Burggren, W. W. (2006). Development of endothermic metabolic response in embryos and hatchlings of the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae)..
Burggren, W. W. (2005). Assessing Physiological Complexity..
Burggren, W. W. (2005). Comparative Developmental Physiology: An interdisciplinary convergence..
Burggren, W. W. (2005). Developing animals flout prominent assumptions of ecological physiology..
Burggren, W. W. (2005). Hypoxic incubation creates differential morphological effects during specific developmental critical windows in the embryo of the chicken (Gallus gallus)..
Burggren, W. W. (2004). Acclimation to hypothermic incubation in developing chicken embryos ( Gallus domesticus ): I. Developmental effects and chronic and acute metabolic adjustments..
Burggren, W. W. (2004). Acclimation to hypothermic incubation in developing chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus): II. Hematological and blood O2 transport..
Burggren, W. W. (2004). Body, eye and chorioallantoic vessel growth are not dependent upon cardiac output levels in day 3-4 chicken embryos..
Moriya, K., Akiyama, R., Dzialowski, E. M., Burggren, W. W., Tazawa, H. (2004). Development of heart rate circadian rhythm in chickens. Avian and Poultry Biology Reviews. 15(3-4), 211–218. Science Reviews 2000 Ltd.
Burggren, W. W. (2004). Development of heart rate circadian rhythms in chicks..
Burggren, W. W. (2004). Early development of thermoregulatory competence in chickens: responses of heart rate and oxygen uptake to altered ambient temperatures..
Khandoker, A. H., Fukazawa, K., Dzialowski, E. M., Burggren, W. W., Tazawa, H. (2004). Maturation of the homeothermic response of heart rate to altered ambient temperature in developing chick hatchlings (Gallus gallus domesticus). American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 286(1), R129–R137. Am Physiological Soc.
Burggren, W. W. (2004). Maturation of the homeothermic response of heart rate to altered ambient temperature in developing chick hatchlings (Gallus gallus domesticus)..
Burggren, W. W. (2004). The interplay of cutaneous water loss, gas exchange and blood flow in the toad, Bufo woodhousei: Adaptations in a terrestrially-adapted amphibian..
Burggren, W. W. (2004). What is the purpose of the embryonic heart beat? or How facts can ultimately prevail over physiological dogma..
Burggren, W. W. (2003). Cardiac rhythms of late pre-pipped and pipped chick embryos exposed to altered oxygen environments..
Burggren, W. W. (2003). Cardiovascular regulation during hypoxia in embryos of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus..
Burggren, W. W. (2003). Clutch effects explain heart rate variation in embryonic frogs (cave coqui, Eleutherodactylus cooki)..
Burggren, W. W. (2003). Development of Physiological Regulatory Systems: Altering the Timing of Crucial Events..
Burggren, W. W. (2003). Heart rate responses to cooling in emu hatchlings..
Crossley, D. A., Bagatto, B. P., Dzialowski, E. M., Burggren, W. W. (2003). Maturation of cardiovascular control mechanisms in the embryonic emu (Dromiceius novaehollandiae). Journal of Experimental Biology. 206(15), 2703–2710. The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Burggren, W. W. (2003). Maturation of cardiovascular control mechanisms in the embryonic emu (Dromiceius novaehollandiae)..
Burggren, W. W., Crossley II, D. A., Rogowitz, G., Thompson, D. (2003). Clutch Effects Explain Heart Rate Variation in Embryonic Frogs (Cave Coqui, Eleutherodactylus cooki ). Physiological and Biochemical Zoology. 76(5), 672-678. University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/376918
Crossley II, D. A., Burggren, W. W., Altimiras, J. (2003). Cardiovascular regulation during hypoxia in embryos of the domestic chicken Gallus gallus.. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. 284(1), R219-26.
Burggren, W. W. (2002). Cardiac rhythms in developing emu hatchlings..
Burggren, W. W. (2002). Cardiac rythms in prenatal and perinatal emu embryos..
Burggren, W. W. (2002). Cardiomyopathy in zebrafish due to mutation in an alternatively spliced exon of titin..
Dzialowski, E. M., von Plettenberg, D., Elmonoufy, N. A., Burggren, W. W. (2002). Chronic hypoxia alters the physiological and morphological trajectories of developing chicken embryos. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 131(4), 713–724. Pergamon.
Burggren, W. W. (2002). Chronic hypoxia effects on the physiology and morphology of developign chicken embryos..
Burggren, W. W. (2002). Comparative cardiovascular development: improvign the conceptual framework..
Burggren, W. W., Crossley II, D. A. (2002). Comparative cardiovascular development: improving the conceptual framework.. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology. 132(4), 661-74.
Xu, X., Meiler, S. E., Zhong, T. P., Mohideen, M., Crossley II, D. A., Burggren, W. W., Fishman, M. C. (2002). Cardiomyopathy in zebrafish due to mutation in an alternatively spliced exon of titin.. Nature Genetics. 30(2), 205-9.
Burggren, W. W. (2001). Cardiac rhythms in developing emu hatchlings..
Burggren, W. W. (2001). Growth and metabolism in larval zebrafish: Effects of swim training..
Burggren, W. W. (2000). Continuous measurements of instantaneous heart rate and its fluctuations before and after hatching in chickens..
Burggren, W. W. (2000). Developmental changes in in vivo cardiac performance in the moth..
Burggren, W. W. (2000). Developmental physiology, animal models, and the August Krogh principle..
Burggren, W. W. (2000). Interruption of cardiac output does not affect short term growth and metabolism in day 3 and 4 chick embryos..
Burggren, W. W. (2000). Physiological variability in neonatal armadillo quadruplets: within and between litter differences..
Bagatto, B., Crossley II, D., Burggren, W. W. (2000). Physiological variability in neonatal armadillo quadruplets: within- and between-litter differences.. The Journal of Experimental Biology. 203(Pt 11), 1733-40.
Burggren, W. W. (1999). Genetic environmental and maternal influences on embryonic cardiac rhythms..
Burggren, W. W. (1999). Heart rate responses to altered ambient oxygen in early (day 3-9) chick embryos in the intact egg..
Burggren, W. W. (1999). Introduction: On the significance of cardiac rhythms..
Burggren, W. W. (1999). O2 consumption and heart rate in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio): influence of temperature and ambient O2.
Burggren, W. W. (1998). Cardio-respiratory ontogeny during chronic carbon monoxide induced hypoxemia in the clawed frog Xenopus laevis.
Burggren, W. W. (1998). Studying Physiological Development: Past, Present and Future..
Burggren, W. W. (1997). Cardiovascular functions in two macruran decapod crustaceans (Procambarus clarkiiI and Homarus americanus) during periods of inactivity, tail flexon and cardiorespiratory pauses..
Burggren, W. W. (1997). Developmental changes in chemoreceptive control of gill ventilation in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). I. Reflex ventilatory responses to ambient hyperoxia, hypoxia and NaCN..
Burggren, W. W. (1997). Developmental changes in chemoreceptive control of gill ventilation in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). II. Site of O2-sensitive chemoreceptors..
Burggren, W. W. (1997). Identifying and evaluating patterns in cardio-respiratory physiology..
Burggren, W. W. (1996). Developmental responses to hypoxia in larvae of the frog Xenopus laevis..
Burggren, W. W. (1996). Disruption of hemoglobin oxygen transport does not impact oxygen-dependent physiological processes in developing embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio)..
Burggren, W. W. (1995). Blood pressures and heart rate during larval development in the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis..
Burggren, W. W. (1995). Cardiac output and peripheral resistance during larval development in the anuran amphibian Xenopus laevis..
Burggren, W. W. (1995). Cardiovascular measurements in animals in the milligram body mass range..
Burggren, W. W. (1995). Developmental changes in oxygen consumption regulation in larvae of the South African clawed frog Xenopus laevis..
Burggren, W. W. (1995). Metabolic, ventilatory and acid-base responses associated with specific dynamic action in the toad, Bufo marinus..
Burggren, W. W. (1994). Embryonic heart rate in altricial birds, the pigeon (Columba domestica) and the bank swallow (Riparia riparia)..
Burggren, W. W. (1994). Fixed patterns of bradycardia during late embryonic development in domestic fowl with C locus pleiotropic mutations..
Burggren, W. W. (1994). Intraspecific variability in avian embryonic heart rates: Potential genetic and maternal environment influences..
Burggren, W. W. (1994). Patterns of form and function in developing hearts: Contributions from non-mammalian vertebrates..
Burggren, W. W. (1994). The respiratory transition from water to air breathing during amphibian metamorphosis..
Burggren, W. W. (1993). Developmental changes in the acetylcholine influence on heart muscle of Rana catesbiana: In situ and in vitro effects..
Burggren, W. W. (1993). Specific dynamic action and the metabolism of the brachyuran land cabs Ocypode quadrate (Fabricus, 1787), Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803) and Cardisoma guanhumi Latreille, 1825..
Burggren, W. W. (1992). Development of blood pressure and cardiac reflexes in the frog Pseudis paradoxsus..
Burggren, W. W. (1992). Metabolism and ram gill ventilation in juvenile paddlefish, Polyodon spathula (Chondrostei: Polyodontidae)..
Burggren, W. W. (1992). Respiration and circulation in land crabs.: Novel variations on the marine design..
Burggren, W. W. (1991). Air exposure and physiological compensation in a tropical intertidal chiton, Chiton stokesii (Mollusca: Polyplacophora)..
Burggren, W. W. (1991). Central arterial hemodynamics in larval bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana): developmental and seasonal influences..
Burggren, W. W. (1991). Ontogeny of Cardiovascular and Respiratory Physiology in Lower Vertebrates..
Burggren, W. W. (1990). Developmental changes in cardiac and metabolic physiology of the direct-developing tropical frog Eleutherodactylus coqui..
Burggren, W. W. (1990). Heart rate and hemolymph pressure responses to hemolymph volume changes in the land crab Cardisoma guanhumi: Evidence for 'baroreflex' function..
Burggren, W. W. (1989). Arterial oxygen homeostasis during diving in the turtle Cheldoina longicollis..
Burggren, W. W. (1989). Factors terminating nonventilatory periods in the turtle, Chelydra serpentina..
Burggren, W. W. (1989). Interaction of allometry and development in the mouse Mus musculus; heart rate and hematology..
Burggren, W. W. (1989). Role of the central circulation in regulation of cutaneous gas exchange..
Burggren, W. W. (1988). Cardiac design in lower vertebrates: what can phylogeny reveal about ontogeny?.
Burggren, W. W. (1988). Cardiovascular responses to diving and their relation to lung and blood oxygen stores in vertebrates..
Burggren, W. W. (1987). Allometry of red cell oxygen binding and hematology in larvae of the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum..
Burggren, W. W. (1987). Ontogeny of regulation of gill and lung ventilation in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana..
Burggren, W. W. (1987). Respiratory physiology of intestinal air breathing in the teleost fish Misgurnus anguillicaudatus..
Burggren, W. W. (1986). A rotating respirometer to monitor voluntary activity and associated exchange of respiratory gases in the land hermit crab (Coenobita compressus - H. Milne Edwards)..
Burggren, W. W. (1986). Circulation and respiration in lungfishes..
Burggren, W. W. (1986). Effect of experimental ventilation of the skin on cutaneous gas exchange in the bullfrog..
Burggren, W. W. (1986). Haemolymph acid-base, electrolyte and blood gas status during sustained voluntary activity in the land hermit crab (Coenobita compressus - H. Milne Edwards)..
Burggren, W. W. (1986). Ontogeny of heart rate regulation in the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana..
Burggren, W. W. (1986). Pulmonary fluid balance following pulmocutaneous baroreceptor denervation in the toad..
Burggren, W. W. (1986). The action of acetylcholine upon heart rate changes markedly with development in bullfrogs..
Burggren, W. W. (1986). Ventilation and partitioning of oxygen uptake in the frog Rana pipiens: Effects of hypoxia and activity..
Burggren, W. W. (1985). Cutaneous gas exchange in vertebrates: Design, patterns, control and implications..
Burggren, W. W. (1985). Gas exchange, metabolism and 'ventilation' in gelatinous frog egg masses..
Burggren, W. W. (1985). Skin Breathing in Vertebrates..
Burggren, W. W. (1985). Ventilation, circulation and their interactions in the land crab, Cardisoma guanhumi..
Burggren, W. W. (1984). 'Active' regulation of cutaneous gas exchange by capillary recruitment in amphibians: experimental evidence and a revised model for skin respiration..
Burggren, W. W. (1984). Factors influencing pulmonary and cutaneous arterial blood flow in the toad, Bufo marinus..
Burggren, W. W. (1984). The effects of temperature and water availability on ion and acid-base balance in hemolymph of the land hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus..
Burggren, W. W. (1984). Venous return and cardiac filling in varanid lizards..
Burggren, W. W. (1983). An analysis of scaphognathite pumping performance in the crayfish Orconectes virilis: Compensatory changes to acute and chronic hypoxic exposure..
Burggren, W. W. (1983). Lactate production, tissue distribution and elimination following exhaustive exercise in larval and adult bullfrogs Rana catesbeiana..
Burggren, W. W. (1983). Reflex interactions between (aerial and aquatic gas exchange organs in the larval bullfrog..
Burggren, W. W. (1983). Respiration during chronic hypoxia and hyperoxia in larval and adult bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). I. Morphological responses of lungs, skin and gills..
Burggren, W. W. (1983). Respiration during chronic hypoxia and hyperoxia in larval and adult bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana). II. Changes in respiratory properties of whole blood..
Burggren, W. W. (1983). Temperature and the balance between aerial and aquatic respiration in larva of Rana berlandieri and Rana catesbeiana..
Burggren, W. W. (1982). 'Air Gulping' improves blood oxygen transport during aquatic hypoxia in the goldfish, Carassius auratus..
Burggren, W. W. (1982). Changing respiratory importance of the gills, skin and lungs during metamorphosis in the bullfrog, Rana catesbiana..
Burggren, W. W. (1982). Control of hemoglobin function in salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum)..
Burggren, W. W. (1982). Oxygen partitioning between the skin, gills and lungs of the air-breathing reedfish, Calamoicthys calabaricus..
Burggren, W. W. (1982). Pulmonary plasma filtration in the turtle: A wet vertebrate lung?.
Burggren, W. W. (1982). Respiratory response to steady- state aquatic hypoxia and hyperoxia in the bullfrog tadpole..
Burggren, W. W. (1982). Ventricular hemodynamics in the monitor lizard, Varanus exanthematicus: Pulmonary and systemic pressure separation..
Burggren, W. W. (1981). Acid-base balance following acclimation to temperature change in land crabs..
Burggren, W. W. (1981). Hemolymph oxygen transport, acid-base status and hydromineral regulation during dehydration in three terrestrial crabs, Cardisoma, Birgus and Coenobita..
Burggren, W. W. (1981). Oxygen uptake during environmental temperature change in hermit crabs: adaptation to subtidal, intertidal and supratidal habitats..
Burggren, W. W. (1981). Pulmonary diffusing capacity of the bullfrog Rana catesbeiana..
Burggren, W. W. (1981). Respiration and acid-base balance in the tiger salamander, Ambystoma tigrinum: Influence of temperature acclimation and metamorphosis..
Burggren, W. W. (1981). The contribution of the respiratory papulae and tube feet to oxygen uptake in the sea star, Asterias forbesi (Desor)..
Burggren, W. W. (1980). Anaerobic metabolism, gas exchange and acid-base balance during hypoxic exposure in the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus..
Burggren, W. W. (1979). Aerial CO2 excretion in the obligate air breathing fish, Trichogaster trichopterus: A role for carbonic anhydrase..
Burggren, W. W. (1979). Bimodal gas exchange during variation in environmental oxygen and carbon dioxide in the air breathing fish Trichogaster trichopterus..
Burggren, W. W. (1979). Branchial circulation and gill morphometrics in the sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, an ancient chondrosteian fish..
Burggren, W. W. (1979). Gas exchange and transport during intermittent breathing in chelonian reptiles..
Burggren, W. W. (1979). Respiration and adaptation to the terrestrial habitat in the terrestrial hermit crab, Coenobita clypeatus..
Burggren, W. W. (1978). Gill ventilation in the sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus: Unusual adaptations for bottom dwelling..
Burggren, W. W. (1978). Influence of intermittent breathing on ventricular depolarization patterns in chelonian reptiles..
Burggren, W. W. (1978). Intrapulmonary variation of gas partial pressures and ventilation inequalities in chelonian reptiles.
Burggren, W. W. (1978). Oxygen uptake and transport during hypoxic exposure in the sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus..
Burggren, W. W. (1978). Ventilation in an aquatic and a terrestrial chelonian reptile..
Burggren, W. W. (1977). Circulation during intermittent lung ventilation in the garter snake Thamnophis..
Burggren, W. W. (1977). Properties of blood oxygen transport in the turtle Pseudemys scripta and the tortoise Testudo graeca: Effects of temperature, CO2 and pH..
Burggren, W. W. (1977). Pulmonary stretch receptors regulate heart rate and pulmonary blood flow in the turtle Pseudemys scripta..
Burggren, W. W. (1977). Pulmonary ventilation: perfusion relationships in terrestrial and aquatic chelonian reptiles..
Burggren, W. W. (1977). The pulmonary circulation of the chelonian reptile; morphology, pharmacology and haemodynamics..
Burggren, W. W. (1976). Cardiovascular dynamics of the Chelonia during apnoea and lung ventilation..
Burggren, W. W. (1976). The persistence of a patent ductus arteriosus in an adult specimen of the tortoise Testudo graeca..
Burggren, W. W. (1975). A quantitative analysis of ventilation tachycardia and its control in two chelonians Pseudemys scripta and Testudo graeca..
Burggren, W. W. (1975). Oxygen consumption as a function of body size in a terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita (Decapoda, Paguridea)..
Burggren, W. W. (1974). Branchial water and blood flow patterns and the structure of the gill of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii..
Burggren, W. W. (1974). Respiratory responses to long-term hypoxic stress in the crayfish Orconectes virilis..
Popular Press Article
Burggren, W. W. (1994). Review of "Air Breathing Fishes of India" by J.S. Datta Munshi and G.M. Hughes.
Burggren, W. W. (1991). Blood. In Comparative Animal Physiology, 4th Edition. Ed. C. Ladd Prosser. P. 437-508.

Awarded Grants

Contracts, Grants and Sponsored Research

Contract
Burggren, W. W., "Assessment of CardioActive Compounds II," Sponsored by AstraZeneca Inc., Private, $100000 Funded. (March 1, 2020December 31, 2020).
Burggren, W. W. (Principal), "Development of High Throughput Assessment of In Vitro Blood Brain Barrier," Sponsored by Department of Defense - US Army, Federal, $90000 Funded. (October 01, 2018November 30, 2019).
Jagadeeswaran, P. (Co-Principal), Burggren, W. W. (Principal), "Assessment of CardioActive Compounds," Sponsored by AstraZeneca, Private, $65222 Funded. (20182018).
Grant - Research
Padilla, P. A. (Principal), Burggren, W. W. (Co-Principal), Hughes, L. E. (Co-Principal), Cisneros, G. (Co-Principal), "G-RISE at UNT," Sponsored by National Institutes of Health - NIGMS, Federal, $2187228 Funded. (May 1, 2021April 30, 2026).
Lichtenberg, E. (Principal), Burggren, W. (Co-Principal), "COS Seed Grant 2021," Sponsored by UNT College of Science, University of North Texas, $10000 Funded. (May 1, 2021December 31, 2021).
Roberts, A. P. (Principal), Burggren, W. W. (Principal), Crossley, D. A. (Principal), Mager, E. M. (Principal), "RECOVER 2," Sponsored by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative, Other, $1113292 Funded. (January 1, 2018March 31, 2020).
Burggren, W. W. (Principal), Padilla, P. (Co-Principal), ""Epigenetic Inheritance of Physiological Phenotypes: Occurrence, Mechanism and Inter-and Intra-individual Variation,"," Sponsored by National Science Foundation, Federal, $300000 Funded. (August 1, 2015July 31, 2019).
Roberts, A. P. (Co-Principal), Burggren, W. W. (Co-Principal), Crossley, D. A. (Principal), "RECOVER Consortium," Sponsored by Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative, Private, $2700000 Funded. (January 1, 2014December 31, 2017).
,
Overall
Summative Rating
Challenge and
Engagement Index
Response Rate

out of 5

out of 7
%
of
students responded
  • Overall Summative Rating (median):
    This rating represents the combined responses of students to the four global summative items and is presented to provide an overall index of the class’s quality. Overall summative statements include the following (response options include a Likert scale ranging from 5 = Excellent, 3 = Good, and 1= Very poor):
    • The course as a whole was
    • The course content was
    • The instructor’s contribution to the course was
    • The instructor’s effectiveness in teaching the subject matter was
  • Challenge and Engagement Index:
    This rating combines student responses to several SPOT items relating to how academically challenging students found the course to be and how engaged they were. Challenge and Engagement Index items include the following (response options include a Likert scale ranging from 7 = Much higher, 4 = Average, and 1 = Much lower):
    • Do you expect your grade in this course to be
    • The intellectual challenge presented was
    • The amount of effort you put into this course was
    • The amount of effort to succeed in this course was
    • Your involvement in course (doing assignments, attending classes, etc.) was
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